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Table 2 Intrafraction prostate motion in three directions and 3D vector; a comparison of the present study with previously published data using different systems

From: Determining intrafractional prostate motion using four dimensional ultrasound system

  Mean of max prostate shifts (±1SD) [mm]  
Investigator, year N (fractions) System Time [min] I(+)/S L(+)/R A(+)/P % 3D vector shift 3D-vector [mm]
Lometti et al., 2005 [33] 11 (133) MV fluoroscopy: real-time FM tracking 1     >2 mm 4 % 0.7 ± 0.5
Li HS et al., 2008 [4] 35 (1267) Calypso 12 0.3 ± 0.7 0.0 ± 0.3 0.4 ± 0.6   
Kupelian et al., 2008 [2] 17 (550) Calypso 10     >3 mm 14 %  
Langen et al., 2008 [18] 17 (550) Calypso 2     >3 mm 3 %  
Li et al., 2009 [19] 20 (157) Calypso 11.4     >3 mm 19 %  
Vargas et al., 2010 [29] 7 (68) Cine-MRI 4      0.41 ± 1.2
Wang et al., 2011 [34] 29 (1061) Calypso 3     >3 mm 9 %  
Smeenk et al., 2011 [30] 15 (576) Calypso 2.5     >3 mm 1.4 %  
Ng et al., 2012 [32] 10 (268) Real-time kilovoltage FM tracking 3–4     >3 mm 5.6 %  
Mayyas et al., 2013 [9] 8 Pre- post-treatment kV images   0.8 ± 2.7 0.2. ± 2.1 −0.3 ± 2.4   
Mayyas et al., 2013 [9] 19 Calypso   0.0 ± 1.5 0.0 ± 0.6 0.0 ± 1.3   
Tong et al., 2015 [8] 236 (8660) Calypso 2     >2 mm 13 %  
Choi et al., 2015 [28] 12 (336) Transrectal US/3 FMs 4–5 0.6 ± 0.6 −0.3 ± 0.3 −0.7 ± 0.6 >2 mm 11 % 1.1 ± 0.8
Present study 10 (51) Clarity real-time TPUS 2–2.5 0.2 ± 0.9 −0.2 ± 0.8 −0.2 ± 1.1 >2 mm 12 % 0.9 ± 0.6
  1. Intrafractional motion of prostate patients (N) in 3D vector, I/S, inferior-superior, L/R, left-right, and A/P, anterior-posterior directions, using TPUS, transperineal Clarity ultrasound (US) system, Calypso system, implanted fiducial markers (FMs), CINE-MRI, and endorectal balloon