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Table 4 Unajusted and adjusted population attributable fraction of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma due to gender, individual and combined effects of smoking and alcohol in Southwestern Uganda

From: Population attributable fraction of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma due to smoking and alcohol in Uganda

Characteristic Crude PAF model aAdjusted PAF model
% PAF (95 % CI) % PAF (95 % CI)
Male 55.36 % (26.46 – 72.90) -
Female −48.71 % (−81.33 – −21.97) -
Substance use   
 Never smoke and alcohol REF REF
 Smoking 19.67 % (4.91 – 32.14) 15.62 % (−2.49 – 30.53)
 Alcohol 9.04 % (−8.42 – 24.36) 10.17 % (−9.12 – 26.05)
 Alcohol & smoking 14.90 % (2.95 – 25.38) 12.66 % (−1.29 – 24.61).
  1. aAdjusted for age and gender