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Table 1 Mediators and mechanisms of skeletal muscle loss in cancer cachexia: correlation of findings in animal models and humans

From: Molecular pathways leading to loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer cachexia – can findings from animal models be translated to humans?

  Animal models Humans
TNF-α ++ +/−
Yoshida hepatoma/sarcoma, LLC, Leydig cell tumor, Morris hepatoma Various types of solid tumors
TRAF-6 + +
LLC Gastric cancer
IL-6 ++ +/−
C26, Morris hepatoma, ApcMin/+ Various types of solid tumors
IL-1 + +/−
Methylcholanthrene-induced Sarcoma, Prostate ADK Various types of solid tumors
INF-γ + +/−
MAC16 Various types of solid tumors
Myostatin/ TGF-ß ++ +
C26, MAC16 Gastric cancer
PIF + +/−
MAC16 GIT cancers
Angiotensin II + +
C26 NSCLC, congestive heart failure
Ubiquitin-Proteasome system ++ +
C26, Yoshida hepatoma, LLC GIT cancers
Autophagy-lysosomal system + +
C26, Yoshida hepatoma, LLC Lung cancer
IGF-1/Pi3K/Akt/mTOR +/− +/−
C26, ApcMin/+ Various types of solid tumors
MRFs (Myo D, Pax7) + +
C26 Pancreatic cancer
  1. + role confirmed in few studys
  2. ++ role confirmed in many studys
  3. +/− role not confirmed/inconsistent results
  4. Abbreviations: TNF tumor necrosis factor, LLC Lewis lung cell carcinoma, TRAF TNF-receptor adaptor protein, IL interleukin, INF interferon, TGF transforming growth factor, PIF proteolysis inducing factor, IGF insulin like growth factor, MRF muscle growth and regeneration factor