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Table 1 Summary of relative risks and prevalence (%) of exposure to modifiable reproductive factors in Korean women and data source

From: Population attributable risks of modifiable reproductive factors for breast and ovarian cancers in Korea

Risk factors Category Relative risk (95 % CI) Study design Source Prevalence (%)a Source
Breast cancer       
 Pregnancy/age at first birth Nulliparous 1.06 (0.82-1.36) Case–control study SeBCS 3 KNHANES, 2005
  ≤23 years 1.00    36  
  24 – 30 year 1.13 (0.98-1.32)    57  
  ≥31 year 1.27 (0.98-1.66)    4  
 Total period of breast feeding Never 1.03 (0.87-1.21) Case–control study SeBCS 17 (18b) KNHANES, 2005
  ≤6 months 1.28 (1.07-1.53)    9 (10b)  
  ≥7 months 1.00    70 (72b)  
 Oral contraceptive use Never 1.00 Meta-anlaysis SeBCS and [31] 82 KNHANES, 2005
  Ever 1.31 (1.04-1.64)    18  
 Hormone replacement therapy use Never 1.00    30 (95c) KNHANES, 2005
  Ever 1.16 (0.36-3.78) Meta-anlaysis SeBCS and [31] 2 (5c)  
Ovarian cancer       
 Pregnancy Nulliparous 1.42 (1.31-1.54) Meta-anlaysis Ko-EVE, [3234, 36, 37, 4042] 3 KNHANES, 2005
  Parous 1.00    97  
 Breast feeding experience Never 1.17 (1.02-1.33) Meta-anlaysis Ko-EVE, [36, 39, 42, 43] 17 (18b) KNHANES, 2005
  Ever 1.00    79(82b)  
 Tubal ligation No 1.44 (1.33-1.56) Meta-anlaysis Ko-EVE and [44] 75 (77b) Ko-EVEd, 2009-2011
  Yes 1.00    22 (23b)  
 Oral contraceptive use Never 1.87 (0.89-3.94) Meta-anlaysis Ko-EVE and [45] 82 KNHANES, 2005
  Ever 1.00    18  
  1. aStandardized prevalence rates among women aged 20 or over by 1990 Korean population census data for pregnancy/age at first birth, total period of breast feeding, pregnancy, breast feeding experience, and tubal ligation. Standardized prevalence rates among women aged 20 or over by 2010 Korean population census data for oral contraceptive use and hormone replacement therapy
  2. bPrevalence in parous women. In the Korean population, the prevalence of women with experience in breastfeeding was 97 %
  3. cPrevalence in post-menopausal women. In the Korean population, the prevalence of post-menopausal women was 32 %
  4. dUsed control population only