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Table 5 Correlates of lifestyle behaviors

From: Prevalence and correlates of healthy lifestyle behaviors among early cancer survivors

  Lifestyle behavior
Number of alcohol consumption Number of vegetable consumption Number of fruit consumption Amount of physical activity Nonsmoking
(N = 223) (N = 225) (N = 228) (N = 225) (N = 141)a
Variable B (95 % CI) p B (95 % CI) p B (95 % CI) p B (95 % CI) p ExpB (95 % CI) P c
Age . 037 (-.15; .23) .698 −1.307 (-2.70; .09) .067 .007 (-.01; .02) .367 −13.723 (-25.94; -1.51) .028* .936 (.86; 1.02) .127
Female gender −5.805 (-11.13; -4.77) .033* 7.579 (-32.98; 48.14) .713 .211 (-.20; .63) .315 −11.993 (-361.07; 337.08) .946 .394 (.04; 4.45) .399
Marital status                
 Without partner ref    ref    ref    ref      
 With partner −4.986 (-10.75; .73) .089 24.032 (-17.65; 65.72) .257 .174 (-.25; .60) .421 −122.543 (-478.92; 233.83) .498    
Education                
 Low ref    ref    ref    ref    ref   .198
 Medium −1.165 (-5.60; 3.72) .605 14.521 (-17.78; 64.82) .376 -.019 (-.35; .31) .907 −176.621 (-451.64; 98.40) .207 2.664 (.52; 13.75) .242
 High −2.370 (-6.64; 1.90) .274 18.004 (-1.71; 49.72) .264 .075 (-.25; .40) .644 −215.435 (-474.80; 43.93) .103 5.451 (.72; 41.44) .101
Income                
 Above average ref ref ref ref
 Average −2.646 (-6.42; 1.13) .168 −19.041 (-47.66; 9.58) .191 -.118 (-.41; .17) .423 71.279 (-169.63; 312.19) .560    
 Below average −4.183 (-9.78; 1.41) .142 −6.040 (-47.44; 35.36) .774 .022 (-.40; .45) .917 −77.931 (-431.78; 275.19) .654    
Cancer type                
 Other ref ref ref ref ref .096
 Breast −1.244 (-7.97; 5.48) .716 −1.055 (-51.79; 49.68) .967 -.046 (-.56; .47) .862 137.614 (-291.14; 566.37) .527 .489 (.02; 12.11) .662
 Colon −1.859 (-8.18; 4.46) .562 5.333 (-42.80; 53.47) .827 .002 (-.49; .49) .995 15.656 (-390.56; 421.88) .939 .045 (.00; 1.04) .053
Treatment                
 Allb ref    ref    ref    ref    ref   .554
 Surgery alone 1.914 (-4.18; 8.01) .536 −6.261 (-51.72; 39.20) .786 -.077 (-.54; .39) .745 −67.186 (-443.93; 309.56) .725 .483 (.04; 5.73) .565
 Surgery, chemo .991 (-3.40; 5.38) .657 -.259 (-33.72; 33.20) .988 −0.52 (-.39; .29) .764 56.566 (-223.74; 3236.87) .691 3.975 (.38; 41.21) .247
 Surgery, radiation .228 (-4.88; 5.34) .930 −15.436 (-52.36; 21.49) .411 .031 (-.35; .21) .872 −43.457 (-358.83; 271.92) .786 .471 (.06; 3.68) .473
 Other -.041 (-7.96; 7.88) .992 -.947 (-60.33; 58.44) .975 -.144 (-.74; .45) .633 −70.914 (-559.88; 418.05) .775 1.275 (.04; 43.16) .893
Aftercare                
 No ref    ref    ref    ref      
 Yes 1.914 (-5.00; 2.39) .487 −15.766 (-43.27; 11.74) .260 -.070 (-.35; .21) .622 −60.426 (-291.29; 170.44) .606    
Time after treatment .991 (-.236; .026) .117 1.053 (.09; 2.02) .032* .003 (-.01; .01) .500 .787 (-7.26; 8.83) .874    
BMI -.257 (-.654; .14) .203 1.654 (-1.32; 4.63) .274 -.013 (-.04; .02) .376 −7.844 (-33.21; 17.53) .453    
Glob. Health/ QoL .044 (-.10; .12) .543 -.412 (-1.48; .67) .451 -.002 (-.01; .01) .732 .246 (-8.74; 9.23) .957 .926 (.86; 1.00) .052
Physical funct. .008 (-.17; .18) .929 -.676 (-1.99; .46) .313 -.007 (-.02; .01) .314 5.129 (-6.24; 16.50) .374    
Role funct. –.076 (-.20; .05) .199 .521 (-.38; 1.42) .254 .006 (-.00; .02) .164 4.379 (–3.05; 11.81) .246    
Emotional funct. –.078 (–.20: .05) .226 .263 (–.71; 1.24) .593 .003 (–.01; .01) .554 7.327 (–.94; 15.59) .082    
Cognitive funct. –.013 (–.12; .09) .796 –.079 (–.86; .70) .840 –.002 (–.01; .01) .600 .192 (–7.84; 6.51) .953 .957 (.92; 1.00) .055
Social funct. .070 (–.05; .19) .234 –.466 (–1.32; .39) .285 –.003 (–.01; .01) .488 –.661 (–7.84; 6.51) .856 1.046 (1.00; 1.09) .038*
Body Image .016 (–.07; .10) .703 .010 (–.65; .66) .977 .000 (–.01; .01) .935 1.977 (–3.43; 7.38) .471    
Fatigue .046 (–.07; .16) .436 .269 (–.63; 1.16) .554 .001 (–.01; .01) .744 7.732 (.30; 12.15) .041*    
Nausea,vomiting –.043 (–.23; .15) .651 –.071 (–1.56; 1.42) .925 .000 (–.02; .01) .957 −2.743 (–14.78; 9.29) .654 .945 (.89; 1.01) .081
Pain –.034 (–.13; .06) .472 .169 (–.56; .90) .650 .001 (–.01; .01) .784 6.229 (.31; 15.16) .039*    
Dyspnea –.025 (–.11; .06) .553 –.428 (–1.07;.21) .188 –.004 (–.01; .00) .277 .010 (–5.19; 5.21) .997    
Insomnia –.062 (–.13; .00) .058 .214 (–.27; .70) .382 .000 (–.00; .01) .866 .850 (–3.13; 4.83) .674 .977 (.95; 1.01) .108
Appetite loss .033 (–.08; .15) .576 –.168 (–1.05; .72) .708 .001 (–.01; .01) .805 4.505 (–2.91; 11.91) .223    
Constipation –.036 (–.12; .03) .452 –.374 (–1.10; .35) .310 –.005 (–.01; .00) .186 −5.298 (–11.12; .53) .074    
Diarrhea .030 (–.13; .06) .503 .111 (–.59; .81) .754 .003 (–.01; .01) .383 .151 (–5.57; 5.87) .959    
Financial probl. .001 (–.09; .09) .987 –.339 (–.99; .31) .302 –.001 (–.01; .01) .827 .024 (–5.44; 5.49) .993 .977 (.95; 1.01) .157
Anxiety –.080 (–.78; .62) .820 –.084 (–5.43; 5.26) .975 –.008 (–.06; .05) .760 41.203 (–3.24; 85.65) .069 .682 (.50; .93) .015*
Depression .170 (–.60; .94) .662 –.204 (–6.03; 5.62) .945 –.027 (–.09; .03) .365 −33.248 (–80.72; 14.22) .169 1.187 (.89; 1,58) .236
Pos. adjustment –.057 (–.32; .20) .667 2.297 (.34; 4.26) .022* .013 (–.02; .03) .198 12.872 (–3.001; 28.75) .111    
Neg. adjustment –.149 (–.48; .18) .373 −1.992 (–4.40; .42) .105 .005 (–.02; .03) .714 6.782 (–13.48; 27.04) .510    
Illness perception –.034 (–.24; .17) .738 .782 (–.71; 2.28) .303 .010 (–.01; .03) .189 −4.296 (–16.86; 8.27) .501    
PPO 1.324 (–1.05; 3.70) .273 −4.790 (–22.60; 13.02) .596 –.001 (–.18; .18) .991 −78.106 (–225.46; 69.24) .297    
NPO .457 (–1.75; 2.66) .684 2.240 (–14.26; 18.74) .789 –.078 (–.25; .09) .360 −82.287 (–222.29; 57.73) .248    
Attitude 1.522 (–.32; 3.36) .105 17.076 (–1.98; 36.13) .079 –.016 (–.21; .18) .872 192.876 (–19.74; 405.49) .075 5.707 (1.83; 17.7) .003**
Social support –.004 (–.01; .00) .290 –.012 (–.19; .17) .894 0.00 (–.00; .00) .710 –.111 (–1.62; 1.40) .884    
Self–efficacy −1.532 (–2.81; –.25) .019* 11.342 (–3.70; 26.36) .138 .070 (–.09; .23) .378 181.637 (54.71; 308.56) .005* 2.583 (1.42; 4.69) .002**
Intention .479 (–1.02; 1.98) .530 36.980 (23.16; 50.81) .000** .597 (.48; .72) .000** 137.551 (–23.15; 298.25) .093 .583 (.58; 1.56) .852
Constant B (SE) 35.146 (20.40) −105.53 (151.51) −1.63 (1.54) −2456.07 (1356.25) 2.96 (5.07)
R2 .297 .415 .514 .312  
Sig. F Change .530 .000 .000 .093  
Cox & Snell R2      .518
Nagelkerke R2 .725
Model X2 102.87
p .000
  1. Note: From Sequential Multiple Regression (continuous outcomes) and Sequential Logistic Regression (smoking) entry step 4 is displayed. Forced entry (enter) method was used; Abbreviations: ExpB: odds ratio; ref: reference group; BMI: Body Mass Index; EORTC: European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer; QoL: Quality of Life; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; neg./pos. adjustment from MAC: Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale; IPQ: Illness Perception Questionnaire; SPSIR–R:S Short Social Problem Solving Inventory–Revised; Chemo: chemotherapy; PPO: positive problem orientation; NPO: negative problem orientation
  2. aDependent variable encoding: if participant is former smoker 1; if participant is current smoker 0; never–smokers were excluded
  3. ball = surgery + chemotherapy + radiation
  4. cp–value of Wald test is presented
  5. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01