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Table 3 Models considering the potential risk modification on the link between human insulin and breast cancer by other medications commonly used in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

From: Prolonged use of human insulin increases breast cancer risk in Taiwanese women with type 2 diabetes

Model n/N HR 95 % CI P
Model I     
 Never users of insulin 4165/345654 1.000   
 Users of human insulin alone without any OAD 39/2939 1.413 (1.030-1.940) 0.0323
 OAD plus human insulin < 2 years 636/88019 0.728 (0.668-0.793) <0.0001
 OAD plus human insulin ≥ 2 years 430/45421 0.983 (0.882-1.096) 0.7587
Model II     
 Never users of insulin 4165/345654 1.000   
 Users of human insulin alone or plus OAD excluding metformin 82/7827 1.127 (0.904-1.405) 0.2893
 Users of human insulin plus metformin < 2 years 23/2285 0.782 (0.519-1.178) 0.2398
 Users of human insulin plus metformin ≥ 2 years 1000/126267 0.798 (0.741-0.859) <0.0001
Model III     
 Never users of insulin 4165/345654 1.000   
 Users of human insulin plus without use of statin 442/51396 0.928 (0.839-1.027) 0.1484
 Users of human insulin plus statin < 2 years 63/8601 0.654 (0.509-0.840) 0.0009
 Users of human insulin plus statin ≥ 2 years 600/76382 0.789 (0.718-0.866) <0.0001
Model IV     
 Never users of insulin 4165/345654 1.000   
 Users of human insulin plus without use of ACEI/ARB 223/26367 0.822 (0.716-0.943) 0.0052
 Users of human insulin plus ACEI/ARB < 2 years 492/69952 0.745 (0.675-0.822) <0.0001
 Users of human insulin plus ACEI/ARB ≥ 2 years 390/40060 1.005 (0.895-1.128) 0.9370
  1. n: case number of incident breast cancer, N: case number followed
  2. HR: hazard ratio, CI: confidence interval
  3. OAD: oral antidiabetic drug, ACEI: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB: angiotensin receptor blocker
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