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Table 2 Patient- and tumor characteristics of the primary DCIS in relation to risk of a breast cancer event. Risk of an ipsilateral breast cancer event (IBE) including risk of in situ IBEs and invasive ipsilateral recurrence, respectively, and any invasive recurrence (IBCR) (univariate Cox regression analyses)

From: The prognostic role of HER2 expression in ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS); a population-based cohort study

Characteristics Ipsilateral Breast Events (IBE) in situ IBEs invasive IBEs Invasive Breast Cancer Recurrence (IBCR)
Among BCS (n = 359) BCS BCS Among all (n = 458)
  HR (95 % CI) HR (95 % CI) HR (95 % CI) HR (95 % CI)
Age (years)     
  < 50 Reference Reference Reference Reference
 50–65 0.77 (0.44–1.31) 0.92 (0.41–2.05) 0.63 (0.30–1.32) 0.68 (0.41–1.12)
  > 65 1.19 (0.67–2.12) 1.31 (0.55–3.11) 1.09 (0.50–2.37) 0.98 (0.57–1.66)
Detection mode     
 Screening Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Clinically 1.78 (1.04–3.07) 1.78 (0.81–3.91) 2.09 (0.98–4.42) 1.47 (0.93–2.35)
Type of Surgery     
 BCS - - - Reference
 Mastectomy - - - 0.55 (0.29–1.03)
RT after BCS     
 No Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Yes 0.53 (0.33–0.86) 0.50 (0.25–1.01) 0.51 (0.27–0.98) 0.91 (0.59–1.41)
Tumor size (mm)     
  ≤ 25 Reference Reference Reference Reference
  > 25 / multifocal 1.14 (0.71–1.83) 1.88 (0.97–3.62) 0.64 (0.30–1.34) 0.89 (0.55–1.45)
Nuclear grade     
 Grade 1 Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Grade 2 0.90 (0.41–1.96) 1.05 (0.30–3.63) 0.73 (0.27–1.99) 0.82 (0.38–1.77)
 Grade 3 0.83 (0.39–1.79) 1.03 (0.30–3.49) 0.63 (0.23–1.69) 0.64 (0.30–1.37)
ER status     
 Negative Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Positive 0.90 (0.52–1.55) 0.80 (0.38–1.71) 1.02 (0.47–2.22) 1.16 (0.70–1.93)
PR status     
 Negative Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Positive 0.83 (0.52–1.32) 1.04 (0.53–2.02) 0.66 (0.35–1.27) 1.06 (0.69–1.63)
  1. RT radiotherapy, BCS breast conserving surgery, IBE ipsilateral breast events, IBCR invasive breast cancer recurrence