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Table 3 Univariate analysis of PG expression in relation to known prognostic indicators

From: Proteoglycan-based diversification of disease outcome in head and neck cancer patients identifies NG2/CSPG4 and syndecan-2 as unique relapse and overall survival predicting factors

Prognostic indicator/PG N.of cases Clinical outcomes
Loco-regional recurrence Lymphnodal metastasis Distant metastasis Disease-related death Any of the clinical outcomes1
% cases p value % cases p value % cases p value % cases p value % cases p value
Prognostic indicator             
Sex Male 99 14.1 0.342 15.2 0.043 10.1 0.847 22.2 0.155 36.4 0.094
Female 74 7.0 5.4 9.5 13.5 24.3
Age ≤45 yrs 17 11.8 0.689 11.8 0.964 0.0 - 5.9 0.146 17.6 0.184
>45 yrs 156 12.2 10.9 10.9 19.9 32.7
Smoking No 66 13.6 0.689 9.1 0.466 9.1 0.718 12.1 0.109 25.8 0.253
Yes 105 11.4 12.4 10.5 21.9 34.3
Alcohol2 No 83 10.8 0.521 8.4 0.231 4.8 0.026 6.0 <0.001 21.7 0.012
Yes 88 13.6 13.6 14.8 29.5 39.8
Familial cancer history No 144 12.5 0.732 10.4 0.615 9.7 0.880 18.8 0.876 31.3 0.994
Yes 27 11.1 14.8 11.1 18.5 33.3
Precancerous lesions No 121 12.4 0.869 5.8 0.003 9.9 0.970 18.2 0.869 28.1 0.305
Yes 51 11.8 21.6 9.8 19.6 37.3
Tumor site OC 156 12.2 0.530 11.5 0.204 10.3 0.776 17.9 0.858 31.4 0.399
OP 14 7.1 0.0 7.1 21.4 21.4
OC+OP 3 33.3 33.3 0.0 33.3 66.7
T classification T1 51 3.9 0.007 7.8 0.326 2.0 0.073 5.9 0.038 17.6 0.018
T2 60 8.3 8.3 16.7 21.7 30.0
T3 17 23.5 17.6 5.9 23.5 47.1
T4 45 22.2 15.6 11.1 26.7 42.2
T1-T2 111 6.3 0.001 8.1 0.065 9.9 0.957 14.4 0.043 24.3 0.005
T3-T4 62 22.6 16.1 9.7 25.8 43.5
N classification Negative 97 9.3 0.079 5.2 0.001 5.2 0.016 9.3 <0.001 19.6 <0.001
Positive 76 15.8 18.4 15.8 30.3 46.1
Differentiation Degree Well 20 15.0 0.441 0.0 0.223 5.0 0.392 15.0 0.952 20.0 0.44
Moderate 50 16.0 12.0 14.0 18.0 36.0
Poor 78 7.7 12.8 7.7 16.7 30.8
Radiotherapy No 83 8.4 0.082 4.8 0.005 3.6 0.007 8.4 <0.001 20.5 0.002
  Yes 90 15.6   16.7   15.6   27.8   41.1  
PG (mRNA) 3             
SDC1 ↓ / = 61 11.5 0.553 6.6 0.396 4.9 0.016 11.5 0.036 21.3 0.013
58 13.8   10.3   19.0   25.9   41.4  
SDC2 ↓ / = 19 5.3 0.253 5.3 0.519 5.3 0.329 10.5 0.314 15.8 0.104
100 14.0   9.0   13.0   20.0   34.0  
SDC3 ↓ / = 24 8.3 0.405 8.3 0.896 4.2 0.193 20.8 0.855 25.0 0.352
95 13.7   8.4   13.7   17.9   32.6  
SDC4 ↓ / = 19 5.3 0.253 5.3 0.519 5.3 0.329 15.8 0.780 26.3 0.601
100 14.0   9.0   13.0   19.0   32.0  
GPC1 = 62 12.9 0.803 6.5 0.502 12.9 0.668 17.7 0.940 32.3 0.625
↓ / ↑ 57 12.3 10.5 10.5 19.3 29.8
GPC2 = 76 10.5 0.393 6.6 0.363 10.5 0.596 21.1 0.335 27.6 0.307
De novo 43 16.3 11.6 14.0 14.0 37.2
GPC3 26 7.7 0.437 0.0 0.219 11.5 0.378 11.5 0.303 23.1 0.624
= 25 20.0 12.0 4.0 12.0 32.0
68 11.8 10.3 14.7 23.5 33.8
GPC4 = 81 11.1 0.598 7.4 0.647 13.6 0.365 21.0 0.308 33.3 0.348
↓ / ↑ 38 15.8 10.5 7.9 13.2 26.3
GPC5 = 33 12.1 0.995 9.1 0.851 6.1 0.241 15.2 0.609 30.3 0.986
De novo 86 12.8 8.1 14.0 19.8 31.4
GPC6 36 19.4 0.351 8.3 0.994 8.3 0.495 16.7 0.838 36.1 0.824
= 24 8.3 8.3 8.3 16.7 29.2
59 10.2 8.5 15.3 20.3 28.8
NG2/CSPG4 = 34 2.9 0.029 8.8 0.914 8.8 0.487 14.7 0.401 20.6 0.077
De novo 85 16.5 8.2 12.9 20.0 35.3
PG (Protein) 4             
SDC1 Tumor cells   Negative 14 7.1 0.447 21.4 0.312 7.1 0.769 7.1 0.269 35.7 0.947
Positive 149 13.4 10.7 9.4 19.5 31.5
Stroma   Negative 129 13.2 0.962 11.6 0.812 9.3 0.998 17.1 0.294 31.0 0.429
Positive 34 11.8 11.8 8.8 23.5 35.3
SDC2 Tumor cells   Negative 143 13.3 0.783 11.9 0.875 8.4 0.303 18.9 0.792 30.8 0.385
Positive 19 10.5 10.5 15.8 15.8 42.1
Stroma Negative 43 9.3 0.277 2.3 0.015 2.3 0.062 2.3 0.001 14.0 0.002
Positive 120 14.2 15.0 11.7 24.2 38.3
SDC3 Tumor cells Negative 106 13.2 0.923 12.3 0.793 8.5 0.655 17.9 0.758 30.2 0.575
Positive 56 12.5 10.7 10.7 19.6 35.7
SDC4 Tumor cells Negative 131 15.3 0.071 13.0 0.329 9.2 0.957 17.6 0.588 32.8 0.649
Positive 32 3.1 6.3 9.4 21.9 28.1
GPC1 Tumor cells Negative 44 11.4 0.653 15.9 0.340 4.4 0.214 15.6 0.602 31.8 0.825
Positive 108 13.6 10.2 10.7 18.9 32.2
Stroma Negative 149 11.4 0.007 12.1 0.884 8.4 0.319 16.8 0.012 30.9 0.104
Positive 13 30.8 7.7 15.4 38.5 46.2
GPC3 Tumor cells Negative 133 12.8 0.805 12.0 0.841 9.6 0.584 18.4 0.834 33.1 0.605
Positive 30 13.3 10.0 6.3 15.6 26.7
GPC4 Tumor cells Negative 96 13.5 0.969 10.2 0.493 9.2 0.928 17.3 0.716 33.3 0.794
Positive 66 12.1 13.0 8.7 18.8 30.3
Stroma Negative 131 13.0 0.860 11.5 0.692 9.2 0.900 18.3 0.771 32.8 0.810
Positive 31 12.9 12.9 9.7 19.4 29.0
GPC6 Tumor cells Negative 101 12.9 0.860 6.9 0.010 5.9 0.052 15.8 0.222 27.7 0.102
Positive 61 13.1 19.7 14.8 23.0 39.3
Stroma Negative 146 11.6 0.058 12.3 0.599 10.3 - 18.5 0.844 32.2 0.828
Positive 16 25.0 6.3 0.0 18.8 31.3
NG2/CSPG4 Tumor cells Negative 52 15.4 0.665 9.6 0.406 9.6 0.923 17.3 0.563 34.6 0.967
Positive 100 12.0 14.0 10.0 21.0 33.0
T group/NG2/CSPG4 mRNA5 T1-T2/= 21 0 <0.001         
T1-T2 / De novo 49 6.1
T3-T4/= 13 7.7
T3-T4/De novo 36 30.6
Precancerous lesions/SDC2 stroma -/- 29    0 0.001       
-/+ 84 8.3
+/- 14 7.1
+/+ 35 28.6
N status6/SDC1 mRNA Negative/↓/= 31      0 0.004     
Negative/↑ 30 10.0
Positive/↓/= 30 10.0
Positive/↑ 28 28.6
N status/SDC2 stroma -/- 33        0 <0.001   
-/+ 57 14.0
+/- 10 10.0
+/+ 63 33.3
N status/SDC1 mRNA Negative/↓/= 31    3.2 <0.001
Negative/↑ 57 33.3
Positive/↓/= 10 40.0
Positive/↑ 63 50.0
PGs pattern       
SDC1 mRNA ↑ NG2/CSPG4 mRNA de novo + SDC2 stroma Yes 36 16.7 0.271 11.1 0.405 25 <0.001 33.3 0.002 50 <0.001
No 73 12.3 8.2 4.1 11 23.3
  1. 1This refers to the situation in which patients manifested at least one of the four adopted clinical outcomes within the follow-up period;
  2. 2Excessive alcohol consumption was based upon self-provided information;
  3. 3PG transcript expression was defined as “↓”, down-regulated; “↑”, up-regulated; “=”, not changed; and “De novo”, de novo expressed, when compared to a healthy mucosal tissues pool that was used as sample calibrator;
  4. 4Protein expression data are reported as detectable or non-detectable by indirect immunohistochemistry;
  5. 5Univariate analyses combining the prognostic indicators that were deemed to be independent poor predictors of each of the five clinical outcomes as accomplished through the Cox proportional hazard model;
  6. 6 N status positive or negative is according to N classification AJCC staging system;
  7. p values <0,05 were considered to be significant (in bold); p values within ≥ 0,05 and <0,06 were considered borderline and were included in the following multivariate regression model; p value was not calculated where a monotone likelihood was established.
  8. Abbreviations: OC, oral cavity; OP, oropharynx.