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Table 2 Individual-, area- level factors associated with gastric cancer screening attendance: multilevel logistic regression analysis

From: Determinants of gastric cancer screening attendance in Korea: a multi-level analysis

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Individual level factors    
Age (years)    
 40-49 1.00 1.00 1.00
 50-59 1.48 (1.32-1.66) 1.45 (1.29-1.64) 1.48 (1.31-1.66)
 60-69 1.73 (1.51-1.97) 1.69 (1.47-1.94) 1.68 (1.46-1.94)
 ≥70 1.08 (0.91-1.27) 1.06 (0.89-1.26) 1.05 (0.89-1.25)
Household income    
 Quartile 1 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Quartile 2 1.04 (0.92-1.17) 1.05 (0.94-1.20) 1.07 (0.94-1.21)
 Quartile 3 1.14 (1.00-1.30) 1.15 (1.01-1.32) 1.17 (1.02-1.34)
 Quartile 4 1.45 (1.26-1.67) 1.46 (1.27-1.69) 1.49 (1.29-1.72)
Education    
 Elementary school or less 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Middle school 1.09 (0.96-1.24) 1.12 (0.98-1.27) 1.13 (0.99-1.29)
 High school 1.02 (0.90-1.15) 1.01 (0.89-1.15) 1.05 (0.92-1.19)
 College or more 1.32 (1.14-1.53) 1.29 (1.11-1.50) 1.34 (1.14-1.56)
Marital status    
 Without spouse 1.00 1.00 1.00
 With spouse 1.45 (1.29-1.62) 1.45 (1.29-1.63) 1.42 (1.26-1.60)
Economic activity    
 No job or no activity 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Having a job 1.05 (0.96-1.16) 1.03 (0.94-1.13) 0.99 (0.90-1.09)
NHI vs. Medicaid    
 NHI 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Medicaid 1.14 (0.93-1.40) 1.16 (0.94-1.43) 1.16 (0.94-1.43)
Private health insurance    
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.45 (1.31-1.61) 1.46 (1.31-1.62) 1.47 (1.32-1.64)
Limitation of activity    
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.12 (1.01-1.24) 1.12 (1.00-1.24) 1.11 (1.00-1.24)
Current smoker    
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 0.68 (0.62-0.76) 0.70 (0.63-0.78) 0.69 (0.62-0.77)
Gastric or duodenal ulcer history    
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.37 (1.18-1.60) 1.38 (1.18-1.61) 1.35 (1.15-1.57)
Area level factors    
Urbanization    
 Quartile 1    1.00
 Quartile 2    0.89 (0.77-1.03)
 Quartile 3    0.79 (0.67-0.94)
 Quartile 4    0.73 (0.57-0.93)
CDI    
 Quartile 1    1.00
 Quartile 2    0.99 (0.85-1.15)
 Quartile 3    0.95 (0.81-1.11)
 Quartile 4    0.98 (0.82-1.18)
No. of primary physicians per unit area (km2)   1.00 (0.99-1.00) 1.00 (1.00-1.00)
No. of gastric cancer screening center per 10,000 persons   1.08 (0.92-1.26) 1.08 (0.91-1.27)
  1. Model 1: included individual level factors those were statistically significant in univariate analysis.
  2. Model 2: variables in Model 1 plus medical service supply (numbers of primary physicians per km2, numbers of gastric cancer screening center per 10,000 persons).
  3. Model 3: variables in Model 1 plus all area level factors (urbanization, CDI, medical service supply).