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Table 2 Effects modifiers of smoking on TP53 -mutations in tumors *1

From: Homozygous deletions of UGT2B17 modifies effects of smoking on TP53-mutations and relapse of head and neck carcinoma

Outcome: any type ofTP53-mutations P interaction *2 Smokers N = 167 Non-smokers N = 65 RR 95% CI p-value
Primary sites of tumor – no. (%)*6 0.09      
Oropharyngeal   26 (76) 4 (80) 0.96 0.59 to 1.54 0.86
Hypopharyngeal   37 (79) 11 (69) 1.15 0.80 to 1.64 0.42
Laryngeal   14 (58) 3 (60) 0.97 0.44 to 2.15 0.95
Oral   15 (48) 16 (67) 0.73 0.46 to 1.15 0.18
Nasal   10 (91) 1 (11) 8.18 1.28 to 52.4 0.0004
Stages – no. (%) 0.0019      
I   7 (64) 1 (100) 0.64 0.41 to 0.99 0.46
II   19 (56) 10 (71) 0.78 0.50 to 1.22 0.32
III   21 (75) 9 (45) 1.67 0.98 to 2.83 0.034
IV   60 (69) 17 (49) 1.42 0.98 to 2.05 0.035
UGT2B17 CNVs*5 – no. (%) 0.0016      
UGT2B17-deletion: 0 copy   85 (69) 24 (44) 1.57 1.14 to 2.17 0.0016
UGT2B17-presence: 1 copy or 2 copies   16 (53) 11 (79) 0.68 0.44 to 1.05 0.11
CDKN2A SCNA*3*6 – no. (%) 0.08      
Normal: 2 copies   68 (65) 22 (51) 1.27 0.91 to 1.75 0.12
Heterozygous deletion: 1 copy   21 (78) 7 (70) 1.11 0.71 to 1.75 0.62
Homozygous deletions: 0 copy   6 (75) 4 (100) 0.75 0.50 to 1.12 0.27
p16-ICH in tumor*4*6 – no. (%) 0.043      
p16 (-)   85 (68) 33 (66) 1.03 0.82 to 1.30 0.80
p16 (+)   17 (77) 2 (22) 3.48 1.00 to 12.1 0.0043
UGT2B17-CNVs & p16-ICH – no. (%)*6 0.0080      
UGT2B17-presence & p16 (-)   13 (57) 10 (91) 0.62 0.42 to 0.93 0.045
UGT2B17-deletions & p16 (-)   67 (69) 21 (57) 1.22 0.89 to 1.66 0.18
UGT2B17-presence & p16 (+)   2 (50) 1 (33) 1.50 0.23 to 9.80 0.66
UGT2B17-deletions & p16 (+)   13 (81) 1 (17) 4.88 0.80 to 29.6 0.0050
  1. *1Any type of TP53-mutations observed in the tumor genome was used as the outcome.
  2. *2Pinteraction was calculated as interaction effect between a factor and smoking on the risk of TP53-mutations in a tumor. With the Bonferroni correction, p < 0.005 was considered as statistically significant.
  3. *3CDKN2A SCNA: Copy number alterations of CDKN2A, which encodes p16, were determined by CGH array.
  4. *4p16 overexpression in tumor samples was determined via ICH and classified as positive (+) or negative (-).
  5. *5UGT2B17 CNV: Copy number variants of UGT2B17 were screened via CGH array and confirmed by real-time PCR and PCR to differentiate between one and two copies of UGT2B17-gene.
  6. *6Interaction was analyzed except for HPV-positive patients.