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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Consumption of hot beverages and foods and the risk of esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Study source Study design Sex Age at baseline(years) No of cases No of participants Exposure assessment Outcome assessment Exposure categories used in meta-analysis Adjustment for confounders Quality assessment
Islami et al., [15], northern Iran Population based case–control F/M Cases:64.5 ± 10.1 controls:64.3 ± 10.4 300 871 Interviews Endoscopy and biopsy samples Tea: hot/very hot vs. warm Ethnicity, daily vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, tobacco or opium use, duration of residence in rural areas, education level, and car ownership 7
Lin et al., [35],Southern China Hospital based case–control F/M Cases:54.5 ± 4.9 controls:52.5 ± 3.7 213 426 FFQ Endoscopically and histologically confirmed Beverage: hot/very hot vs. lukewarm Age, sex, educational status, smoking, drinking, body mass index, vegetable and fruit 6
Rolon et al., [45], Paraguay Hospital based case–control F/M ≤45:33 46–55:89 56–65:188 ≥ 66:202 131 512 Interviews Cytology, histology, or radiology Maté: very hot vs. warm/hot design variables, lifetime cigarette consumption, and lifetime alcohol consumption 6
Stefani et al., [41], Uruguay Hospital based case–control F/M 40-89 166 830 Questionnaire Histologically verified Maté: hot/very hot vs. warm NR 6
Castelletto et al., [43], Argentina Hospital based case–control F/M ≤54:80 55–64:129 65–74:127 ≥ 75:57 131 393 Questionnaire Histological diagnosis Maté: hot/very hot vs. warm Education, average number of cigarettes/day, alcohol consumption (ml/day), the design variables 6
Castellsagu´e et al., [11], south America Hospital based case–control F/M 64.0(mean) 830 2609 Interviews with structured questionnaire Histologically confirmed or a cytological or radiological diagnosis Maté, tea, coffee, coffee with milk: hot/very hot vs. cold/warm Age group, hospital, residency, years of education, average number of cigarettes/day, average amount of pure ethanol/day and gender 6
Ibiebele et al., [12], Australia Population based case–control F/M 18-79 521 1965 FFQ Registries Tea/coffee: hot/very hot vs. lowest Age, gender; cumulative history of smoking in pack years, lifetime mean alcohol intake; heartburn and acid reflux symptoms, body mass index, educational status, aspirin use in previous 5 years, total fruit and vegetable intake and total energy intake in kilojoules 6
Szyman´ska et al., [44], Latin America Hospital based case–control F/M NR 71 228 Lifestyle questionnaire ICD-O classification Maté: hot/very hot vs. cold/warm NR 5
Chen et al., [26], Southern China Hospital based case–control F/M Cases:54.6 ± 6 controls:54.0 ± 7 87 267 Self-designed structured questionnaire Histologically confirmed Tea: hot/very hot vs. warm NR 5
Sewram et al., [42], Uruguay Hospital based case–control F/M 35-85 295 685 Questionnaire Registries Maté: very hot vs. warm/hot Amount consumed, and duration of mate´ consumption 5
Tang et al., [19], China Hospital based case–control F/M 61 ± 11.4 359 739 Structured questionnaire Medical records and pathology reports Tea, water, food: high vs. low or mild Age, gender, education level, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol drinking, family history of cancer in first-degree relatives, daily intake of vegetables and daily intake of fruit 6
Stefani et al., [40], Uruguay Hospital based case–control F/M 40-89 234 702 Questionnaire Microscopically confirmed Maté: hot/very hot vs. warm NR 5
Wu et al., [20], China Population based case–control F/M NR 665 2000 Pretested standardized epidemiologic questionnaire registry Tea: high vs. normal NR 5
Sharp et al., [8], England and Scotland Population based case–control F <75(<80in Trent) 156 312 Interviews Histologically confirmed Tea/coffee: hot/burning hot vs. warm NR 5
Terry et al., [7], Sweden Population based case–control F/M <80 189 1004 interviews Histologically confirmed Tea/coffee: hot/very hot vs. cold/lukewarm Age, gender, body mass index, cigarette smoking, socioeconomic status presence of Gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms, frequency quartiles of hot beverage consumption, and quartiles of alcohol, fruit and vegetables, and energy consumption 5
Lubin et al., 2014, South America, [16] Case–control F/M 35-85 1310 4118 Questionnaire Medical records Maté: hot/very hot vs. warm vs. NR 5
Wang et al. [37], China Population based case–control F/M Mean: cases 61.51 controls 60.75 355 763 Structured questionnaire Pathologically diagnosed Food: hot vs. warm Age (continuous), marital status and education years 7
Phukan et al., [47], India Hospital based case–control F/M Case:55.0 ± 8.1 control:54.5 ± 7.8 502 1511 Investigation Histopathologically confirmed Food: hot vs. moderate Education, income, chewing betel nut and tobacco, smoking, and alcohol use 4
Wu et al., [13], China Population based case–control F/M <50: 67 50–59:219 60–69: 428 70–79:295 ≥ 80:53 531 1062 Pre-tested standardized questionnaires Cancer registration database Food: hot vs. normal NR 4
Gao et al., [29], China Population based case–control F/M 30-74 902 2454 Structured questionnaire Registry Hot soup or porridge: hot/burning hot vs. cold/neither cold nor hot Age, education, birthplace, tea drinking, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and consumption of preserved foods, vegetables and fruit 6
Hu et al., [32], China Hospital based case–control F/M 35-69 196 588 Interviews Histopathologically confirmed Gruel: hot/scalding vs. lowest Smoking, alcohol, income and occupation 4
Garidou et al., [6], Greece Hospital based case–control F/M <60: 79 60–69:103 ≥ 70: 117 99 299 Questionnaire Histologically confirmed Preferrable temperature: very hot vs. cold to hot Gender, age, birthplace, schooling, height, analgesics, coffee drinking, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and energy intake 4
Cheng et al., [51], British Population based case–control F Cases:65.9 controls:65.3 74 148 Questionnaire and interview Histologically confirmed Preference tea or coffee: hot very/burning hot/hot vs. warm NR 4
Hanaoka et al., [53], Japan Hospital based case–control M Under 85 years old 141 282 Structured questionnaire Confirmed histologically by biopsy examination Preference for high = temperature food and drink: like vs. dislike Alcohol consumption (g/week) 4
Srivastava et al., [48], India Case–control F/M NR 170 340 Pretested. Semi-structured questionnaires Endoscopic, radiological and histopathological assessments Food: hot vs. warm NR 4
Stefani et al., [39], Uruguay Hospital based case–control F/M 40-49:45 50–59:120 60–69:207 70–79:183 80–89:45 200 600 Questionnaire Newly diagnosed and microspically confirmed Maté temperature: hot/very hot vs. warm NR 5
Cheng et al., [27], Hong Kong of China Case–control F/M <45:40 45–54:246 55–64: 722 65–74:696 > =75: 294 400 1998 Interviews with structured questionnaire Histologically confirmed diagnoses Preference for hot drinks or soups: yes vs. no Adjusted for age and education, place of birth, green leafy vegetables, pickled vegetables, citrus fruits, tobacco and alcohol 4
Gao et al., [30], China Population based case–control F/M 30-74 653 1965 Structured, standardized questionnaire Registry Burning-hot fluids:yes vs. no NR 5
Cook-mozaffari et al., [49], Iran Case–control F/M NR 344 1032 Questionnaire Registry Drinking of hot tea: yes vs. no NR 4
Guo et al.,[31], China Nested case–control F/M 40-69 640 3840 Structured questionnaires X-ray films and cytological, pathological, surgical specimens Hot liquid:≥1 vs.0 Years of smoking and cancer history in first degree relatives 6
Ke et al., [34], China Hospital based case–control F/M 29-82 1064 2168 Questionnaires and FFQ Histologically confirmed Hot Congou drinkers vs. non-hot Congou drinkers NR 5
Patel et al., [52], Kenya Hospital based case–control F/M Mean:56.1 159 318 Questionnaires NR Take hot beverages: yes/no NR 4
Hung et al., [33], Taiwan of China Case–control M Mean:62.4 267 697 Interviews according to standardized questionnaire Histologically confirmed Hot drink or soup: 3+ time per day vs. <3 time per day Adjusted for age, educational levels, ethnicity, source of hospital, smoking, alcohol drinking and areca nut chewing 4
Chen et al., [25], Taiwan of China Hospital based case–control M 40-50:284 51–60::291 61–70 :314 > 70:209 274 922 Interviews Newly histologically diagnosed Hot drink or soup: > = 1 time/d vs. <1time/d Adjusted for age, educational levels, ethnicity, source of hospital, smoking, alcohol drinking, and areca nut chewing 4
Gao et al., [28],China Case–control F/M 51-65 600 2114 Questionnaires Histologically confirmed Scalding hot food: daily vs. weekly/never/monthly/seldom NR 4
Sun et al., [36],China Population based case–control F/M Cases:61.21 ± 8.95 Controls:60.84 ± 8.90 250 1000 Questionnaires Cancer registration database Hot foods: often vs. sometimes NR 6
Yang et al., [38], China Case–control F/M Cases:58.1 (8.5) Controls:57.9 (8.8) 185 370 Questionnaires Histologically diagnosed within half a year Hot foods: often vs. Rarely/occasionally NR 6
Jessri et al., [50], Iran Hospital based case–control F/M 40-75 47 143 Structured pre-tested questionnaires Histologically-confirmed Food and beverages temperature: hot vs. warm/cold NR 4
Khan et al., [46], India Case–control F/M Case:54.3(7.6) Control:58.1(8.3) 100 200 Questionnaires Histologically-confirmed Degree of hotness: hot vs. warm NR 3
  1. Age presents the range with Mean (SD). Abbreviations: NR = not reported; F = female; M = male.