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Table 5 Association of NAT1 acetylator phenotype with OSCC risk upon exposure to environmental risk factors in Black and Mixed Ancestry South Africans

From: NAT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms and environmental exposure as risk factors for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study

    NAT1 rapid acetylators   NAT1 slow/intermediate acetylators
Population Risk factors Variables Controls Cases OR (95% CI)a P-value Controls Cases OR (95% CI)a P-value
Black           
  Tobacco smoking Never smokers 84 61 1 (Ref)   166 109 1 (Ref)  
   Smokersb 71 81 1.71 (0.73-4.04) 0.218 142 186 3.41 (1.95-5.96) <0.0001
  Tot cigarettes/day 0 84 61 1 (Ref)   166 109 1 (Ref)  
   ≤9 45 50 1.80 (0.72-4.53) 0.208 87 123 3.96 (2.19-7.13) <0.0001
   ≥10 24 31 2.06 (0.73-5.84) 0.174 45 57 2.97 (1.47-5.99) 0.002
  Alcohol drinking Non-drinkers 66 53 1 (Ref)   130 112 1 (Ref)  
   Drinkersc 89 89 1.17 (0.52-2.59) 0.707 177 182 0.87 (0.54-1.40) 0.570
Red meat intake d 3 times/week or less 81    168 1 (Ref)   
   Daily or almost daily 12    23 0.93 (0.43-2.0) 0.851
  White meat intaked 3 times/week or less 56    87 1 (Ref)  
   Daily or almost daily 38    104 1.82 (1.09-3.04) 0.023
Mixed Ancestry           
  Tobacco smoking Never smokers 17 1 1 (Ref)   43 14 1 (Ref)  
   Smokersb 33 46 191 194
  Tot cigarettes/day 0 17 1 1 (Ref)   43 14 1 (Ref)  
   ≤9 17 24 101 58
   ≥10 11 20 77 133
  Alcohol drinking Non-drinkers 21 12 1 (Ref)   93 39 1 (Ref)  
   Drinkersc 29 35 0.80 (0.19-3.44) 0.764 140 170 3.41 (1.70-6.81) 0.001
  Red meat intaked 3 times/week or less 22    81 1 (Ref)  
   Daily or almost daily 7    42 1.32 (0.49-3.55) 0.586
  White meat intaked 3 times/week or less 16    56 1 (Ref)  
   Daily or almost daily 13    66 1.58 (0.68-3.67) 0.288
  1. Samples with unknown acetylator status are not shown.
  2. Ref = reference allele.
  3. aOR was adjusted for age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption status; OR was not calculated for subgroups with low sample size.
  4. bSmokers = current and former smokers.
  5. cDrinkers = light to heavy alcohol drinkers.
  6. dCase-only analysis has been performed for red meat intake due to lack of data from control individuals.