IPA Pathway Analysis of androgen regulated RAS/ERK1/2 signalling. Gene expression changes in LNCaP cells cultured in the presence or absence of androgens for 24 hours. (A) Gene lists from Rajan et al.  were uploaded to the web-based Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA; Ingenuity Systems) software programme, and used to identify novel androgen-regulated genes associated with RAS/ERK1/2 signalling. Genes up-regulated by androgens are highlighted in red, and down-regulated genes are in green. Further details are shown in Additional file 1: Table S1. This highlighted the already well-characterised SPRY1 as an androgen-regulated negative regulator of ERK1/2, as well as some additional previously uncharacterised targets, PTGER4, TSPYL2, ADCY1, OPKR1, TRIB1, PTGER4 and PTPRR. (B) Expression changes for 7 of these genes were validated by real-time PCR.