HNHA reduced tumor burden and induced caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in anin vivomodel. Immunoblot analysis for Bcl-2, phospho-IκB, and caspases-3 and -7 in Caki-1 and A-498 cells (A, B). Cytochrome c protein levels were determined by immunohistochemistry to decide when to sacrifice the animal (C, D). Negative control slides (IgG control) were treated with isotype-matched IgG. Error bars show SEs (n = 7). *P < 0.05, vs. control, **P < 0.01, vs. control, ***P < 0.005, vs. control. The MetaMorph 4.6 image-analysis software was used to quantify the immunostained target protein.