Proliferative effects of E
and phytoestrogens on GH
cells. (A) Cells treated with physiological or dietary levels of estrogens: 10-9 M E2, 10-8 M coumesterol (Cou), 10-7 M cholesterol (negative control), daidzein (Dai), genistein (Gen), or trans-resveratrol (Res) over a 9 day time course. Cell proliferation was measured by the crystal violet assay. (B-F) Dose-response profiles of the proliferative effects of different concentrations of estrogens after 3 days of treatment. (B) E2, (C) coumesterol, (D) daidzein, (E) genistein, and (F) trans-resveratrol. The solid horizontal line spans the reported concentrations of each estrogen in human serum or urine. * = p < 0.05 compared to vehicle-treated cells.