0.99) as a ranking tool in all 224 human liver tissues examined by 2-DE analysis. Of high importance, ACTB and HSP 60 were successfully validated at both protein and mRNA levels in human hepatic tissues by western blot, immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, no significant correlation of these markers with any clinicopathological features of HCC and cirrhosis was found. Gene stability measure of these two markers with other conventionally applied housekeeping genes was assessed by the geNorm algorithm, which ranked ACTB and HSP60 as the most stable genes among this cohort of clinical samples. Conclusion Our findings identified 2 reference markers that exhibited stable expression across human liver tissues with different conditions thus should be regarded as reliable reference moieties for normalisation of gene and protein expression in clinical research employing human hepatic tissues."/>
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Table 2 The expressions of beta-actin and HSP60 in different clinicopathological subgroups of HCC tumour tissues.

From: A protein-based set of reference markers for liver tissues and hepatocellular carcinoma

Clinicopathological parameters n = 105 Beta-actin HSP60
   Mean intensity (ppm) pvalue Mean intensity (ppm) pvalue
Gender      
   Male 89 7.60 ± 0.95 0.81a 7.77 ± 1.06 0.63a
   Female 16 7.59 ± 0.93   7.70 ± 0.93  
Age (years)      
   ≥60 38 7.61 ± 0.81 0.76a 7.48 ± 0.74 0.67a
   < 60 67 7.58 ± 1.01   7.76 ± 1.17  
Tumour size (cm)      
   > 2 69 7.79 ± 0.96 0.17a 7.68 ± 0.98 0.91a
   ≤2 36 7.40 ± 0.89   7.79 ± 1.14  
Venous infiltration      
   Yes 58 7.53 ± 0.71 0.61a 7.58 ± 0.73 0.36a
   No 57 7.65 ± 1.01   7.89 ± 0.87  
New TNM stage      
   Stage I-II 69 7.72 ± 1.10 0.38a 7.58 ± 0.99 0.75a
   Stage III-IV 36 7.47 ± 0.84   7.70 ± 1.14  
New Edmonson Grade      
   Well differentiated 27 7.49 ± 1.37 0.39b 7.68 ± 1.37 0.97b
   Moderately differentiated 60 7.51 ± 0.94   7.76 ± 0.77  
   Poorly differentiated 18 7.79 ± 0.71   7.77 ± 0.73  
  1. a, analysed by independent t test; b, analysed by one-way ANOVA.