0.99) as a ranking tool in all 224 human liver tissues examined by 2-DE analysis. Of high importance, ACTB and HSP 60 were successfully validated at both protein and mRNA levels in human hepatic tissues by western blot, immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, no significant correlation of these markers with any clinicopathological features of HCC and cirrhosis was found. Gene stability measure of these two markers with other conventionally applied housekeeping genes was assessed by the geNorm algorithm, which ranked ACTB and HSP60 as the most stable genes among this cohort of clinical samples. Conclusion Our findings identified 2 reference markers that exhibited stable expression across human liver tissues with different conditions thus should be regarded as reliable reference moieties for normalisation of gene and protein expression in clinical research employing human hepatic tissues."/>
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Figure 1 | BMC Cancer

Figure 1

From: A protein-based set of reference markers for liver tissues and hepatocellular carcinoma

Figure 1

Identification of beta-actin, HSP60, and PDI as potential housekeeping markers. The protein expression profile of liver tissue on a 2-DE gel is shown, and the zones with the protein markers, beta-actin (SSP3412), HSP 60 (SSP4503), and PDI (SSP6510), are square-bracketed. Representative gel images and the histograms illustrating the relative protein intensities (in ppm) of SSP3412, SSP4503 and SSP6510 among tumourous, T (n = 105), non-tumourous cirrhotic, NT (n = 103), and normal, N (n = 16) liver tissues are shown. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA and p value was used as a ranking system for expression variability. Data are presented as the mean ± SD.

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