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Table 4 Odds ratios of breast cancer risk according to ω-3 fatty acid intake level

From: Fatty fish and fish omega-3 fatty acid intakes decrease the breast cancer risk: a case-control study

  Total Premenopausal women Postmenopausal women
  Control (n) Case (n) Age adjusted Odds ratio Multivariate Odds ratioa Control (n) Case (n) Age adjusted Odds ratio Multivariate Odds ratiob Control (n) Case (n) Age adjusted Odds ratio Multivariate Odds ratioc
ω-3 fatty acid (g/day)             
   < 0.059 90 134 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 47 73 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 43 61 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
   0.059-<0.143 90 90 0.67(0.45–1.00) 0.83(0.50–1.37) 57 55 0.61(0.36–1.03) 0.83(0.42–1.64) 33 35 0.76(0.41–1.41) 1.01(0.48–2.15)
   0.143-<0.296 90 76 0.56(0.37–0.85) 0.74(0.44–1.24) 46 46 0.62(0.36–1.08) 0.83(0.40–1.70) 44 30 0.49(0.26–0.90) 0.76(0.35–1.61)
   ≥ 0.296 90 58 0.43(0.28–0.66) 0.47(0.27–0.80) 46 36 0.49(0.28–0.87) 0.46(0.22–0.96) 44 22 0.35(0.18–0.68) 0.51(0.22–1.13)
P for trend    < 0.001 0.004    0.037 0.040    0.001 0.068
EPA(20:5n-3) (g/day)             
   < 0.014 90 124 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 54 66 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 36 58 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
   0.014-<0.041 95 103 0.79(0.53–1.17) 0.90(0.55–1.48) 53 63 0.96(0.57–1.61) 1.11(0.57–2.15) 42 40 0.61(0.33–1.12) 0.81(0.38–1.73)
   0.041-<0.101 85 76 0.65(0.43–0.98) 0.91(0.54–1.55) 47 45 0.78(0.45–1.35) 1.13(0.54–2.33) 38 31 0.52(0.27–0.98) 0.78(0.35–1.74)
   ≥ 0.101 90 55 0.44(0.28–0.68) 0.50(0.28–0.91) 42 36 0.68(0.38–1.22) 0.67(0.30–1.50) 48 19 0.25(0.12–0.49) 0.38(0.15–0.96)
P for trend    < 0.001 0.016    0.182 0.227    < 0.001 0.035
DHA(22:6n-3) (g/day)             
   < 0.037 90 132 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 52 72 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 38 60 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
   0.037-<0.092 90 90 0.68(0.46–1.01) 0.86(0.52–1.43) 52 54 0.74(0.44–1.26) 0.91(0.46–1.78) 38 36 0.61(0.33–1.14) 0.90(0.42–1.95)
   0.092-<0.213 90 86 0.65(0.43–0.97) 0.77(0.46–1.28) 48 49 0.72(0.42–1.23) 0.93(0.46–1.85) 42 37 0.56(0.31–1.04) 0.81(0.37–1.75)
   ≥ 0.213 90 50 0.37(0.24–0.58) 0.44(0.24–0.79) 44 35 0.56(0.32–1.00) 0.54(0.24–1.20) 46 15 0.21(0.10–0.42) 0.32(0.13–0.82)
P for trend    < 0.001 0.004    0.075 0.118    < 0.001 0.010
  1. a adjusted for age, BMI, family history of breast cancer, supplement use, education level, occupation, alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, parity, total energy intake, menopausal status, age at menarche; b adjusted for age, BMI, family history of breast cancer, supplement use, education level, occupation, alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, parity, total energy intake, age at menarche; c adjusted for age, BMI, family history of breast cancer, supplement use, education level, occupation, alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, parity, total energy intake, postmenopausal hormone use, age at menarche. EPA: Eicosapentaenoic acid, DHA: Docosahexaenoic acid. Energy-adjusted nutrient intakes were computed as the residuals from the regression model with total caloric intake as the independent variable and absolute nutrient intake as the dependent variable.