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Table 2 Associated factors with CNS metastasis development

From: Brain metastasis development and poor survival associated with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prospective analysis

N = 293 CNS Metastasis 12 months
% (95% IC)
CNS Metastasis 24 months
% (95% IC)
pUnivariate Analysis RR (95% CI) pMultivariate Analysis
Age      
   <60 years 20 (14.2–25.8) 36 (20.2–51.6) 0.79   
   ≥60 years 22 (16.1–27.8) 22 (16.1–27.8)    
Gender      
   Female 21 (13.6–27.3) 31 (12.9–48.1) 0.86   
   Male 22 (16.1–27.9) 33 (18.8–46.2)    
Smoking History      
   Negative 24 (18.2–29.9) 36 (18.6–53.9) 0.22   
   Positive 19 (13.1–24.8) 26 (12.3–39.7)    
Histology      
   Adenocarcinoma 28 (22.1–33.8) 31 (23.1–38.8) 0.0002 5.2 (1.002–29) 0.05
   *Others 7.8 (3.9–11.7) 29 (3.5–54.4)    
CEA ≥ 40 ng/mL      
   Negative 12 (8–15.9) 24 (11.8–35.3) <0.001 11.4 (1.7–74) 0.01
   Positive 61 (45.4–76.8) 61 (45.4–76.8)    
EGFR***      
   Positive 57 (56.6–57.3) 57 (56.6–57.3) 0.2   
   Negative 45 (44.6–45.3) 45 (44.6–45.3)    
  1. The endpoint for univariate analysis was CNS metastasis at 24 months.
  2. CNS: Central Nervous System.
  3. RR (95% CI): Relative Risk (95% Confidence Interval).
  4. *Others: Squamous, Giant Cells, Undifferentiated.
  5. CEA: Carcinoembryonic Antigen.
  6. ***: Tissue expression was determined only in 85 different
  7. primary tumor samples (see text).