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Table 3 Numbers of cases aged 15–24 years, age-standardized rates (per million population) and 95% CIs, average annual percentage rate changes and 95% CIs, by diagnosis, sex and time period and test for sex-difference in temporal trend (P-value)

From: Sex-specific incidence and temporal trends in solid tumours in young people from Northern England, 1968–2005

    1968–1980   1981–1993   1994–2005 % Ann Inc M/F diff
CNS tumours Male 87 29.0 (22.9,35.1) 84 28.4 (22.3,34.5) 53 23.6 (17.3,30.0) -0.5 (-1.9,0.8) 0.60
  Female 59 19.8 (14.7,24.8) 59 20.2 (15.1,25.4) 47 20.8 (14.9,26.8) 0.0 (-1.5,1.5)  
Ependymomas Male 8 2.7 (1.2,5.3) 10 3.4 (1.6,6.3) 3 1.3 (0.3,3.9) -2.1 (-5.5,1.4) 0.19
  Female 2 0.7 (0.1,2.5) 1 0.4 (0.0,2.1) 3 1.3 (0.3,3.9) 3.2 (-3.9,10.3)  
Astrocytomas Male 28 9.4 (6.2,13.6) 25 8.6 (5.6,12.7) 23 10.2 (6.5,15.3) 0.4 (-1.9,2.7) 0.71
  Female 21 7.0 (4.4,10.8) 17 5.8 (3.4,9.3) 16 7.1 (4.0,11.5) -0.2 (-2.4,2.0)  
PNET Male 8 2.6 (1.1,5.2) 3 1.0 (0.2,2.9) 2 0.9 (0.1,3.2) -2.8 (-7.9,2.2) 0.99
  Female 4 1.4 (0.4,3.5) 2 0.7 (0.1,2.5) 1 0.5 (0.0,2.6) -2.9 (-8.8,3.1)  
Other gliomas Male 14 4.6 (2.5,7.8) 17 5.6 (3.3,9.0) 5 2.2 (0.7,5.2) -1.4 (-4.4,1.5) 0.99
  Female 11 3.6 (1.8,6.5) 10 3.6 (1.7,6.7) 5 2.2 (0.7,5.1) -1.4 (-5.3,2.4)  
Sympathetic nervous system tumours Male 1 0.3 (0.0,1.8) 6 2.1 (0.8,4.6) 2 0.9 (0.1,3.2) 1.5 (-4.1,7.0) 0.71
  Female 2 0.7 (0.1,2.4) 3 1.1 (0.2,3.1) 4 1.9 (0.5,4.8) 3.1 (-3.4,9.7)  
Retinoblastoma Male 0 - 0 - 0 - - -
  Female 0 - 0 - 0 - -  
Renal tumours Male 1 0.3 (0.0,1.8) 3 1.0 (0.2,2.9) 4 1.7 (0.5,4.3) 2.8 (-4.0,9.6) 0.32
  Female 3 1.0 (0.2,3.0) 3 0.9 (0.2,2.7) 1 0.4 (0.0,2.4) -1.8 (-7.9,4.3)  
Hepatoblastomas Male 0 - 0 - 0 - - -
  Female 1 0.3 (0.0,1.8) 1 0.3 (0.0,1.7) 0 - -4.4 (-16.0,7.3)  
Bone tumours Male 36 12.1 (8.2,16.1) 50 17.7 (12.8,22.6) 28 12.6 (8.4,18.3) 0.2 (-1.7,2.0) 0.15
  Female 19 6.4 (3.9,10.0) 22 7.9 (4.9,11.9) 25 11.6 (7.5,17.1) 2.2 (0.2,4.2)  
Osteosarcoma Male 20 6.8 (4.2,10.6) 23 8.2 (5.2,12.3) 17 7.7 (4.5,12.3) 0.1 (-2.6,2.8) 0.10
  Female 10 3.4 (1.6,6.2) 12 4.3 (2.2,7.5) 17 7.9 (4.6,12.7) 3.5 (0.5,6.5)  
Ewing's sarcoma Male 9 3.0 (1.4,5.7) 20 7.0 (4.3,10.8) 7 3.2 (1.3,6.6) 1.0 (-1.9,4.0) 0.50
  Female 6 2.1 (0.8,4.5) 5 1.7 (0.6,4.1) 5 2.3 (0.8,5.4) -0.7 (-4.8,3.4)  
Soft tissue sarcomas Male 27 9.1 (6.0,13.3) 29 9.9 (6.6,14.2) 33 14.6 (9.6,19.6) 1.9 (-0.4,4.2) 0.55
  Female 27 9.2 (6.1,13.4) 39 13.3 (9.1,17.5) 28 12.7 (8.4,18.4) 1.0 (-0.8,2.9)  
Rhabdomyosarcoma Male 5 1.7 (0.6,4.0) 2 0.7 (0.1,2.6) 7 3.2 (1.3,6.6) 3.0 (-1.5,7.5) 0.74
  Female 4 1.4 (0.4,3.6) 13 4.6 (2.5,7.9) 4 1.8 (0.5,4.5) 2.0 (-2.2,6.1)  
Other Male 22 7.4 (4.6,11.2) 27 9.1 (6.0,13.3) 26 11.4 (7.5,16.7) 1.7 (-1.0,4.4) 0.60
  Female 23 7.8 (4.9,11.7) 26 8.7 (5.7,12.7) 24 10.9 (7.0,16.3) 0.7 (-1.7,3.2)  
Germ cell tumours Male 70 23.1 (17.7,28.6) 115 37.5 (30.6,44.4) 107 46.5 (37.7,55.3) 2.1 (0.6,3.7) 0.74
  Female 44 14.6 (10.3,18.9) 35 11.6 (7.8,15.5) 48 21.6 (15.5,27.7) 1.7 (-0.2,3.6)  
Gonadal Male 65 21.5 (16.2,26.7) 101 32.8 (26.4,39.3) 94 40.9 (32.6,49.1) 1.9 (0.3,3.4) 0.51
  Female 29 9.6 (6.4,13.8) 26 8.6 (5.6,12.7) 31 13.8 (9.0,18.7) 1.0 (-1.0,3.0)  
Non-gonadal Male 5 1.7 (0.5,3.9) 14 4.6 (2.5,7.8) 13 5.6 (3.0,9.6) 4.4 (1.1,7.7) 0.65
  Female 15 5.0 (2.8,8.2) 9 3.0 (1.4,5.7) 17 7.8 (4.5,12.4) 3.2 (-0.7,7.1)  
Carcinomas Male 78 25.7 (20.0,31.4) 75 24.6 (19.0,30.2) 68 29.7 (22.6,36.8) 0.2 (-1.4,1.8) 0.07
  Female 131 43.1 (35.7,50.5) 164 53.9 (45.6,62.1) 177 78.2 (66.7,89.7) 2.2 (0.7,3.7)  
Thyroid Male 6 2.0 (0.7,4.3) 8 2.8 (1.2,5.5) 9 3.9 (1.8,7.4) 2.5 (-2.2,7.2) 0.90
  Female 13 4.4 (2.3,7.5) 22 7.4 (4.6,11.3) 26 11.5 (7.5,16.9) 2.8 (0.1,5.6)  
Melanoma Male 20 6.7 (4.1,10.4) 22 7.2 (4.5,10.9) 19 8.3 (5.0,13.0) 0.6 (-2.1,3.3) 0.03
  Female 25 8.3 (5.3,12.2) 54 17.8 (13.0,22.5) 69 30.8 (23.5,38.1) 4.6 (2.2,7.1)  
Skin Male 9 2.9 (1.3,5.5) 9 2.9 (1.3,5.5) 21 9.1 (5.6,13.8) 4.7 (0.5,8.9) 0.61
  Female 11 3.6 (1.8,6.5) 12 4.1 (2.1,7.1) 20 8.8 (5.4,13.6) 3.2 (-0.4,6.9)  
Breast Male 0 - 0 - 1 0.5 (0.0,2.6) 11.8 (-8.4,32.0) 0.25
  Female 14 4.5 (2.5,7.6) 18 5.7 (3.4,9.0) 10 4.3 (2.1,8.0) -0.3 (-2.9,2.3)  
Genital/other reproductive Male 0 - 0 - 0 - - -
  Female 31 10.0 (6.5,13.5) 28 8.8 (5.9,12.8) 26 11.3 (7.4,16.6) 0.5 (-1.7,2.8)  
Lung and bronchial Male 4 1.3 (0.4,3.4) 3 1.0 (0.2,2.9) 0 - -6.2 (-12.5,0.2) 0.23
  Female 2 0.7 (0.1,2.4) 1 0.3 (0.0,1.7) 2 0.9 (0.1,3.3) 0.0 (-7.7,7.8)  
Colorectal Male 10 3.3 (1.6,6.1) 5 1.7 (0.6,4.0) 4 1.7 (0.5,4.4) -3.5 (-7.4,0.4) 0.01
  Female 1 0.3 (0.0,1.8) 3 1.0 (0.2,2.9) 5 2.2 (0.7,5.0) 8.2 (0.1,16.3)  
TOTAL Male 300 99.8 (88.5,111.1) 362 121.1 (108.6,133.6) 295 129.7 (114.9,144.5) 0.8 (-0.2,1.8) 0.30
  Female 286 95.2 (84.1,106.2) 326 109.2 (97.3,121.1) 330 147.2 (131.3,163.1) 1.6 (0.5,2.7)  
  1. Figures are counts, ASRs with 95% CIs, Annual Percentage Change in ASR with 95% CIs (estimated from linear regression model) and p value for testing M/F difference in trend (obtained from year *sex interaction term in linear regression model)