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Table 2 Numbers of cases aged 0–14 years, age-standardized rates (per million population) and 95% CIs, average annual percentage rate changes and 95% CIs, by diagnosis, sex and time period and test for sex-difference in temporal trend (P-value)

From: Sex-specific incidence and temporal trends in solid tumours in young people from Northern England, 1968–2005

    1968–1980   1981–1993   1994–2005 % Ann. Inc M/F diff
CNS tumours Male 134 28.5 (23.6,33.4) 115 29.9 (24.4,35.4) 133 38.4 (31.8,45.0) 1.5 (0.5,2.5) 0.74
  Female 116 26.2 (21.3,31.0) 91 25.1 (19.9,30.3) 102 32.7 (26.3,39.2) 1.2 (0.2,2.2)  
Ependymomas Male 18 4.3 (2.5,6.8) 17 4.7 (2.7,7.5) 16 4.9 (2.8,8.0) 0.7 (-1.7,3.2) 0.61
  Female 10 2.4 (1.2,4.5) 6 1.6 (0.6,3.5) 5 1.9 (0.6,4.5) -0.5 (-4.6,3.6)  
Astrocytomas Male 38 7.9 (5.4,10.5) 44 11.1 (7.8,14.4) 55 15.5 (11.3,19.6) 3.1 (1.7,4.6) 0.33
  Female 36 8.1 (5.4,10.8) 29 7.9 (5.3,11.4) 61 19.5 (14.5,24.5) 4.4 (2.3,6.6)  
PNET Male 35 7.5 (4.9,10.0) 16 4.4 (2.5,7.2) 27 8.1 (5.3,11.8) 0.6 (-1.6,2.9) 0.86
  Female 16 3.8 (2.1,6.1) 15 4.3 (2.4,7.1) 14 4.7 (2.5,7.8) 0.9 (-1.7,3.6)  
Other gliomas Male 13 2.9 (1.5,5.0) 10 2.6 (1.2,4.7) 11 3.1 (1.5,5.6) 0.7 (-2.4,3.9) 0.42
  Female 15 3.4 (1.9,5.6) 9 2.6 (1.2,4.9) 10 2.9 (1.4,5.4) -1.0 (-3.7,1.7)  
Sympathetic nervous system tumours Male 32 7.4 (4.8,10.0) 43 12.6 (8.9,16.4) 27 9.6 (6.3,14.0) 0.9 (-0.5,2.4) 0.29
  Female 25 6.9 (4.5,10.2) 34 10.3 (6.8,13.8) 36 13.3 (8.9,17.6) 2.2 (0.4,3.9)  
Retinoblastoma Male 16 4.2 (2.4,6.8) 12 3.6 (1.9,6.3) 10 3.6 (1.7,6.6) -0.3 (-3.6,3.1) 0.42
  Female 26 7.2 (4.7,10.5) 17 5.4 (3.1,8.6) 7 2.7 (1.1,5.6) -2.1 (-5.0,0.8)  
Renal tumours Male 28 6.8 (4.5,9.9) 18 5.1 (3.0,8.0) 25 9.0 (5.8,13.3) 0.5 (-1.5,2.6) 0.86
  Female 31 8.3 (5.3,11.2) 29 8.8 (5.9,12.7) 25 9.4 (6.1,13.9) 0.3 (-1.5,2.1)  
Hepatoblastomas Male 1 0.3 (0.0,1.5) 1 0.3 (0.0,1.7) 5 1.9 (0.6,4.4) 7.3 (-0.2,14.9) 0.18
  Female 5 1.3 (0.4,3.0) 2 0.6 (0.1,2.3) 3 1.2 (0.2,3.4) 0.5 (-5.5,6.6)  
Bone tumours Male 30 5.3 (3.4,7.2) 17 4.0 (2.3,6.4) 18 4.6 (2.7,7.3) 0.3 (-2.1,2.7) 0.58
  Female 21 4.1 (2.5,6.3) 21 5.1 (3.1,7.8) 14 3.8 (2.1,6.4) -0.7 (-3.3,1.9)  
Osteosarcoma Male 18 3.1 (1.9,5.0) 8 1.9 (0.8,3.8) 8 2.0 (0.9,3.9) -0.9 (-4.3,2.6) 0.80
  Female 16 3.1 (1.8,5.1) 12 2.9 (1.5,5.0) 9 2.5 (1.1,4.7) -1.5 (-4.2,1.3)  
Ewing's sarcoma Male 12 2.2 (1.1,3.8) 9 2.0 (0.9,3.9) 8 2.0 (0.9,4.0) 0.3 (-2.4,3.0) 0.94
  Female 4 0.8 (0.2,2.2) 9 2.2 (1.0,4.2) 3 0.8 (0.2,2.4) 0.1 (-4.9,5.1)  
Soft tissue sarcomas Male 45 9.6 (6.7,12.4) 46 12.5 (8.9,16.2) 36 11.2 (7.5,14.9) 1.3 (-0.2,2.8) 0.70
  Female 28 6.0 (4.0,8.7) 22 5.8 (3.6,8.8) 22 7.0 (4.4,10.7) 0.8 (-1.2,2.9)  
Rhabdomyosarcoma Male 24 5.4 (3.4,8.1) 26 7.2 (4.7,10.6) 25 8.3 (5.3,12.3) 2.4 (0.2,4.5) 0.09
  Female 19 4.3 (2.5,6.7) 10 2.7 (1.3,5.1) 10 3.7 (1.7,6.7) -0.4 (-2.7,1.9)  
Other Male 21 4.2 (2.6,6.4) 20 5.3 (3.2,8.2) 11 2.9 (1.4,5.2) -0.4 (-2.9,2.1) 0.19
  Female 9 1.7 (0.8,3.3) 12 3.1 (1.6,5.4) 12 3.4 (1.7,5.9) 2.5 (-1.1,6.0)  
Germ cell tumours Male 17 4.4 (2.5,7.0) 18 5.1 (3.0,8.1) 20 6.5 (4.0,10.2) 2.1 (-0.7,4.8) 0.02
  Female 8 1.8 (0.7,3.5) 20 5.7 (3.5,8.9) 32 10.6 (6.9,14.4) 6.2 (4.1,8.3)  
Gonadal Male 13 3.4 (1.8,5.8) 13 3.9 (2.1,6.6) 6 2.1 (0.8,4.6) -1.1 (-4.9,2.7) 0.001
  Female 2 0.4 (0.0,1.3) 2 0.5 (0.1,1.8) 14 4.0 (2.1,6.7) 8.6 (4.3,12.9)  
Non-gonadal Male 4 1.0 (0.3,2.5) 5 1.2 (0.4,2.9) 14 4.4 (2.4,7.5) 7.2 (2.6,11.8) 0.50
  Female 6 1.4 (0.5,3.1) 18 5.2 (3.1,8.3) 18 6.6 (3.9,10.5) 5.4 (2.8,7.9)  
Carcinomas Male 11 2.0 (1.0,3.7) 13 3.0 (1.6,5.1) 15 4.2 (2.3,6.9) 3.2 (0.1,6.3) 0.31
  Female 17 3.8 (2.2,6.1) 20 5.0 (3.0,7.7) 17 5.0 (2.9,8.0) 1.1 (-1.5,3.7)  
Thyroid Male 2 0.4 (0.0,1.3) 2 0.5 (0.1,1.7) 5 1.3 (0.4,3.0) 5.9 (-0.4,12.2) 0.07
  Female 4 0.9 (0.2,2.4) 3 0.7 (0.1,2.0) 2 0.6 (0.1,2.0) -1.8 (-7.1,3.4)  
Melanoma Male 2 0.3 (0.0,1.2) 3 0.7 (0.1,2.0) 2 0.6 (0.1,2.3) 4.3 (-2.8,11.4) 0.81
  Female 3 0.7 (0.1,2.2) 8 2.1 (0.9,4.1) 5 1.6 (0.5,3.7) 3.1 (-2.7,9.0)  
Skin Male 0 - 2 0.4 (0.1,1.5) 2 0.5 (0.1,1.9) 9.6 (0.0,19.2) 0.46
  Female 0 - 2 0.5 (0.1,1.6) 2 0.5 (0.1,1.8) 4.5 (-4.8,13.8)  
Breast Male 0 - 0 - 0 - - -
  Female 0 - 0 - 0 - -  
Genital/other reproductive Male 0 - 0 - 0 - - -
  Female 0 - 1 0.3 (0.0,1.8) 0 - 2.9 (-15.1,20.9)  
Lung and bronchial Male 1 0.2 (0.0,1.1) 0 - 0 - -12.1 (-25.9,1.6) 0.12
  Female 1 0.2 (0.0,1.0) 0 - 1 0.3 (0.0,1.4) 2.8 (-9.6,15.2)  
Colorectal Male 0 - 0 - 0 - - -
  Female 1 0.2 (0.0,1.0) 0 - 1 0.3 (0.0,1.4) 2.5 (-9.9,14.8)  
TOTAL Male 314 68.6 (60.8,76.3) 283 76.1 (67.1,85.0) 289 89.0 (78.6,99.4) 1.3 (0.7,1.9) 0.84
  Female 277 65.4 (57.6,73.2) 256 71.8 (62.9,80.7) 258 85.7 (75.0,96.3) 1.2 (0.5,2.0)  
  1. Figures are counts, ASRs with 95% CIs, Annual Percentage Change in ASR with 95% CIs (estimated from linear regression model) and p value for testing M/F difference in trend (obtained from year *sex interaction term in linear regression model)