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Table 3 Age-Adjusted Incidence Rate and Relative Risk of Cancer by Smoking Status and Dietary Preferencea

From: Dietary preference, physical activity, and cancer risk in men: national health insurance corporation study

Cancer site Never/Former Smokers Current Smokers
  Meat Vegetables or mixture of vegetables and meat Meat Vegetables or mixture of vegetables and meat
All (n = 275) (n = 4,586) (n = 654) (n = 8,135)
   Age aIRb 479.0 458.1 653.9 601.9
   Age aRR (95% CI) 1.00 0.96 (0.85 – 1.08) 1.00 0.92 (0.85 – 1.00)
   Multivariate (95% CI)c 1.00 0.97 (0.86 – 1.10) 1.00 0.94 (0.87 – 1.02)
Head and neck (n = 12) (n = 227) (n = 34) (n = 411)
   Age aIRb 21.2 23.3 34.4 30.7
   Age aRR (95% CI) 1.00 1.10 (0.61 – 1.96) 1.00 0.89 (0.63 – 1.26)
   Multivariate (95% CI)c 1.00 1.11 (0.62 – 2.00) 1.00 0.91 (0.64 – 1.29)
Esophagus (n = 6) (n = 56) (n = 19) (n = 212)
   Age aIRb 8.9 4.7 17.1 13.8
   Age aRR (95% CI) 1.00 0.53 (0.23 – 1.22) 1.00 0.81 (0.51 – 1.29)
   Multivariate (95% CI)c 1.00 0.56 (0.24 – 1.29) 1.00 0.87 (0.54 – 1.39)
Stomach (n = 82) (n = 1,171) (n = 162) (n = 2,192)
   Age aIRb 141.6 115.5 161.0 161.6
   Age aRR (95% CI) 1.00 0.82 (0.65 – 1.02) 1.00 1.00 (0.86 – 1.18)
   Multivariate (95% CI)c 1.00 0.83 (0.66 – 1.03) 1.00 1.02 (0.87 – 1.20)
Lung (n = 21) (n = 343) (n = 105) (n = 1,105)
   Age aIRb 36.8 34.0 104.5 79.8
   Age aRR (95% CI) 1.00 0.92 (0.59 – 1.44) 1.00 0.76 (0.63 – 0.93)
   Multivariate (95% CI)c 1.00 0.95 (0.61 – 1.48) 1.00 0.77 (0.63 – 0.95)
Colorectum (n = 40) (n = 767) (n = 66) (n = 935)
   Age aIRb 70.3 77.2 68.0 71.1
   Age aRR (95% CI) 1.00 1.10 (0.80 – 1.51) 1.00 1.05 (0.81 – 1.34)
   Multivariate (95% CI)c 1.00 1.12 (0.82 – 1.55) 1.00 1.05 (0.82 – 1.35)
Liver (n = 48) (n = 921) (n = 119) (n = 1,551)
   Age aIRb 78.8 87.9 107.9 105.9
   Age aRR (95% CI) 1.00 1.12 (0.83 – 1.49) 1.00 (ref) 0.98 (0.81 – 1.18)
   Multivariate (95% CI)c 1.00 1.14 (0.85 – 1.53) 1.00 (ref) 1.02 (0.85 – 1.23)
Gallbladder (n = 10) (n = 120) (n = 16) (n = 185)
   Age aIRb 18.0 12.4 16.5 14.0
   Age aRR (95% CI) 1.00 0.69 (0.36 – 1.31) 1.00 0.85 (0.51 – 1.41)
   Multivariate (95% CI)c 1.00 0.72 (0.38 – 1.37) 1.00 0.90 (0.54 – 1.51)
Pancreas (n = 6) (n = 114) (n = 15) (n = 210)
   Age aIRb 9.5 10.2 15.5 15.9
   Age aRR (95% CI) 1.00 1.07 (0.47 – 2.43) 1.00 1.02 (0.61 – 1.73)
   Multivariate (95% CI)c 1.00 1.07 (0.47 – 2.43) 1.00 1.00 (0.59 – 1.70)
Kidney (n = 7) (n = 142) (n = 19) (n = 220)
   Age aIRb 12.2 14.2 18.9 16.3
   Age aRR (95% CI) 1.00 1.17 (0.55 – 2.50) 1.00 0.87 (0.54 – 1.38)
   Multivariate (95% CI)c 1.00 1.24 (0.58 – 2.64) 1.00 0.89 (0.56 – 1.43)
Bladder (n = 5) (n = 123) (n = 25) (n = 255)
   Age aIRb 8.7 12.1 25.4 19.1
   Age aRR (95% CI) 1.00 1.39 (0.57 – 3.41) 1.00 0.75 (0.50 – 1.14)
   Multivariate (95% CI)c 1.00 1.41 (0.58 – 3.45) 1.00 0.77 (0.51 – 1.16)
Prostate (n = 8) (n = 134) (n = 11) (n = 142)
   Age aIRb 12.2 11.2 10.2 9.3
   Age aRR (95% CI) 1.00 0.91 (0.45 – 1.87) 1.00 0.91 (0.49 – 1.68)
   Multivariate (95% CI)c 1.00 0.89 (0.44 – 1.83) 1.00 0.93 (0.50 – 1.72)
  1. The number in the parenthesis means the number of cancer cases.
  2. Abbreviations: aIR, age adjusted incidence rate; aRR, adjusted relative risk; CI, confidence interval.
  3. a Dietary preference was categorized as meats and vegetables or mixture of vegetables and meat.
  4. bThe rate is per 100,000 person-years, adjusted to the age distribution of the entire study population.
  5. c The multivariate relative risk model using standard Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age, leisure-time physical activity, amount of alcohol drinking, body mass index and fasting blood sugar as appropriate.