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Table 3 Performance of combinations of candidate biomarkers

From: AFP, PIVKAII, GP3, SCCA-1 and follisatin as surveillance biomarkers for hepatocellular cancer in non-alcoholic and alcoholic fatty liver disease

Combination TP FP TN FN sensitivity (HCC = 50) specificity (LC = 41) TPP TPN LR
afp 28 0 41 22 56.00% 100.00% 100.0% 65.10% -
afp+piv 47 8 33 3 94.00% 80.50% 85.50% 91.70% 4.82
piv 39 8 33 11 78.00% 80.50% 83.00% 75.00% 4
afp+scca 36 11 30 14 72.00% 73.20% 76.60% 68.20% 2.68
afp+piv+scca 45 16 25 5 90.00% 61.00% 73.80% 83.30% 2.31
piv+scca 42 16 25 8 84.00% 61.00% 72.40% 75.80% 2.15
gcp+scca 36 16 25 14 72.00% 61.00% 69.20% 64.10% 1.85
afp+gcp 41 22 19 9 82.00% 46.30% 65.10% 67.90% 1.53
afp+piv+gcp 48 27 14 2 96.00% 34.10% 64.00% 87.50% 1.46
gcp+piv 46 27 14 4 92.00% 34.10% 63.00% 77.80% 1.4
all 48 31 10 2 96.00% 24.40% 60.80% 83.30% 1.27
gcp 34 22 19 16 68.00% 46.30% 60.70% 54.30% 1.27
gcp+piv+scca 47 31 10 3 94.00% 24.40% 60.30% 76.90% 1.24
afp+gcp+scca 36 28 13 14 72.00% 31.70% 56.30% 48.10% 1.05
scca 9 11 30 41 18.00% 73.20% 45.00% 42.30% 0.67
  1. The true and false positive (TP and FP), as well as true and false negative (TN and FN) for each candidate either alone or in combination is presented, along with sensitivity, specificity, true percentage positive (TPP) and true percentage negative (TPN) values and the liklihood ratio (LR). The LR is the ratio of true and false positives (sensitivity and 1-specificity respectively), where higher values reflect the probability of a better performance.