DCs treated with VA Qu Spez show an increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86. The 4-day-old DCs (0.5 × 106) were treated with medium alone (Control) or with 15 ng/ml TNF-α or with 5, 10 and 15 μg/ml of VA Qu Spez for 48 hours. The expression of CD80 (A and B) and CD86 (A and C) was analysed by flow cytometry (BD LSRII). Panel A shows the % of DCs positive for CD80 (open bars) and CD86 (filled bars), while mean fluorescence intensities were presented in Panels B and C. Data are presented as mean ± SEM from from five to six independent donors. Statistical significance (*, p < 0.05) as analysed by Mann-Whitney test is indicated.