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Table 2 Correlation between the expression of HIF-1α, p53, VEGF, and preoperative sVEGF level and clinicopathological parameters

From: Clinicopathologic significance of HIF-1α, p53, and VEGF expression and preoperative serum VEGF level in gastric cancer

   p53 HIF-1α VEGF sVEGF
   - + P* -/S D/V P* U O P* Median (range) P
Total   70 44   96 18   48 66   (pg/ml)  
Gender             
   Male 67 (58.8) 37 30 0.106 57 10 0.763 24 43 0.105 82 (6–1076) 0.275
   Female 47 (41.2) 33 14   39 8   24 23   158 (7–642)  
Age             
   <60 58 (50.9) 36 22 0.882 49 9 0.935 31 27 0.013 112 (6–622) 0.309
   ≥ 60 56 (49.1) 34 22   47 9   17 39   121 (6–1076)  
Tumor size             
   <4 cm 47 (41.2) 34 13 0.045 43 4 0.061 19 18 0.761 76 (6–495) 0.002
   ≥4 cm 67 (58.8) 36 31   53 14   29 38   167 (6–1076)  
T stage             
   T0,1 29 (25.5) 24 5 0.015 28 1 0.001 12 17 0.748 T0–2 0.565
   T2 48 (42.1) 28 20   42 6   23 25   103 (6–1076)  
   T3 31 (27.2) 14 17   23 8   10 21   T3–4  
   T4 6 (5.3) 4 2   3 3   3 3   165 (8–504)  
LN meta             
   Negative 41 (35.9) 30 11 0.040 38 3 0.051 17 24 0.917 77 (6–477) 0.010
   Positive 73 (64.1) 40 33   58 15   31 42   156 (6–1076)  
TNM stage             
   I 42 (36.8) 30 12 0.296 39 3 0.022 17 25 0.840 Stage I-II 0.382
   II 25 (21.9) 15 10   21 4   14 11   96 (6–1076)  
   III 31 (27.2) 13 18   25 6   7 24   Stage III-IV  
   IV 16 (14.0) 12 4   11 5   10 6   158 (8–504)  
Lauren             
   Intestinal 45 (51.7) 26 19 0.393 39 9 0.387 14 31 0.014 96 (6–1076) 0.294
   Diffuse 42 (48.3) 28 14   37 5   24 18   154 (8–633)  
  1. P * by χ2 test, P by Mann-Whitney U test
  2. HIF-1α: hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor, sVEGF: preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor, LN: lymph node, -/s: negative/superficial pattern, d/v: deep/diffuse/vascular invasion pattern, U: under-expressed, O: over-expressed