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Table 1 Possible experiments to investigate paradox associated with sarcomas and Millipore filters

From: Paradoxes in carcinogenesis: New opportunities for research directions

Question Proposed experiment Rationale
What aspect of the implant is responsible for sarcomas? 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design involving surface area, roughness, electrostatic charge, pore size A factorial design allows investigation of many factors at once.
How does the implant affect cellular changes? Primary study: no implant versus small pore implant that induces sarcoma Looking for salient differences in gene expression using multiple random validation and signatures with few genes
  Secondary study: no implant versus large pore implant that does not induce sarcoma Control study to determine if differences in gene expression could reliably be associated with histological changes