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Table 6 Mitoxantrone and anthracycline trials: PSA and tumor response.

From: Non-hormonal systemic therapy in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and metastases: a systematic review from the Cancer Care Ontario Program in Evidence-based Care's Genitourinary Cancer Disease Site Group

Trial Treatment arms PSA response* Tumor response
   N Response rate % Statistical comparison N Objective response rate % Statistical comparison
Berry, 2002 [69] mitoxantrone prednisone 56 48† p = 0.007 8 25 (PR) p = NR
  prednisone 63 24†   9 22 (PR)  
Kantoff, 1999 [70] mitoxantrone hydrocortisone 96 18.7 p = 0.41 116 7 (PR) p = 0.38
  hydrocortisone 91 14.3   118 4 (PR)  
Tannock, 1996 [71] mitoxantrone prednisone 57 33 p = 0.11 NR
  prednisone 54 22     
Weissbach, 1998 [88] mitomycin C NR 60 22 NR
  epirubicin     61 11  
  EMP     55 9  
Anderström, 1995 [72] epiribucin MPA NR NR
  EMP       
Laurie, 1992 [73] 5-FU doxorubicin mitomycin-C (combined) NR 70 14 NR
  5-FU doxorubicin mitomycin-C (sequential)     72 18  
Saxman, 1992 [74] cyclophosphamide doxorubicin methotrexate NR 16 18.8 (PR) NR
  cyclophosphamide     16 6 (PR)  
Murphy, 1988 [75] doxorubicin cyclophosphamide NR 54 1 (PR) p = NS
  cisplatin 5-FU cyclophosphamide     46 0  
  methotrexate     52 0  
Stephens, 1984 [76] doxorubicin cyclophosphamide NR 19 32 p = 0.05
  hydroxyurea     24 4  
  1. *PSA response was defined as e50% decrease in PSA compared with baseline; †PSA response with stabilization or improvement of performance status for at least 2 weeks.
  2. Abbreviations: 5-FU – 5-fluorouracil; EMP – estramustine phosphate; N – number; NR – not reported; NS – non-significant; PR – partial response; PSA – prostate-specific antigen.