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Table 5 Summary of results from previous studies of parental ages and breast cancer development

From: Association of paternal age at birth and the risk of breast cancer in offspring: a case control study

Study Country N (# cases) Age (yrs) Paternal age (PA) RR Maternal age (MA) RR Adjusting Restricted
         Mutually* Covariates  
Cohort study
Colditz et al, 1991 US 118,309 (1,976) 3055 ≥39 vs. <20 0.9 (0.56–1.45) ≥39 vs. <20 0.9 (0.57–1.39) YES YES -
Zhang et al, 1995 US 2,662 (149) 29–62 ≥36 vs. <29 0.8 (0.5–1.4) 26–31 vs. <26 1.5 (1.0–2.4) - YES -
Holmberg et al1, 1995 US 384,769 (1,967) - ≥45 vs. <20 0.8 (0.48–1.28) ≥45 vs. <20 1.3 (0.85–1.98) - YES -
Hemminki et al, 1999 Sweden 3,800,000 (8,877) 15–53 40–49 vs. <25 1.1 (0.94–1.18) 40–49 vs. <20 1.1 (0.91–1.27) YES - PA in sporadic cases
Hilakivi-Clarke et al, 2001 Finland 3,447 (177) - - - - NS - - -
Study Country Cases/controls Age (yrs) Paternal age (PA) OR Maternal age (MA) OR Adjusting Remark
         Mutually* Covariates  
Case-control study
Standfast et al, 1967 US 229/229 40–44 - - 29.1 vs. 28.2 2p < 0.05 - - -
Henderson et al, 1974 US 308/308 <64 31.5 vs. 30.7 NS 27.3 vs. 26.3 P < 0.01 - - -
Rothman et al, 1980 International 4339/12760 - - - 35–39 vs. <20 1.30 - YES -
Baron et al, 1984 UK 971/971 ≤50 - - 21–25 vs. ≤20 1.4 (0.92–2.18) - YES -
Le Marchand et al, 1988 US 153/461 <45 36–59 vs. 19–26 1.4 (0.81–2.41) 30–46 vs. 23–26 1.7 (0.99–2.78) - - Pts <33 yrs
Janerich et al, 1989 US 801/2647 - Per 10-yrs 1.2 (1.07–1.33) Each 10-yrs 1.2 (1.09–1.41) - - -
Thompson et al, 1990 US 2492/2687 20–54 - - 35–39 vs. <20 1.5 (1.10–1.93) - YES parous
Hsieh et al, 1991 International 927/2616 ≥35 - - Each 5-yrs 1.1 (1.01–1.10) - YES postmenopause
Ekbom et al, 1992 Sweden 458/1197 ≥35 - - Each 5-yrs 1.0 (0.92–1.12) - - -
Janerich et al, 1994 US 2414/9138 - ≥45 vs. <25 1.0 (0.76–1.28) ≥40 vs. <20 1.1 (0.87–1.37) - YES -
Sanderson et al, 1995 US 1147/1399 21–45, 50–64 - - ≥35 vs. <25 1.0 (0.7–1.4), 1.0 (0.7–1.5) - - -
Ekbom et al, 1997 Sweden 1068/2727 - - - Each 5-yrs 1.1 (0.99–1.14) - - -
Newcomb et al, 1997 US 1253/1121 - ≥40 vs. ≤24 0.9 (0.68–1.24) ≥40 vs. ≤20 0.9 (0.62–1.37) - YES -
Weiss et al, 1997 US 2173/1990 20–55 - - ≥35 vs. <20 0.9 (0.7–1.3) - YES -
Innes et al, 2000 US 484/2870 14–37 ≥40 vs. 25–29 1.5 (1.03–2.23) ≥35 vs. 20–24 1.9 (1.18–3.18) YES - -
Titus-Ernstoff et al, 2002 US 5629/5928 50–79 - - ≥40 vs. 25–29 1.3 (0.90–1.79) - - postmenopause
Mellemkjǽr et al, 2003 Denmark 881/3423 <40 - - ≥30 vs. <25 1.1 (0.90–1.36) - - -
Hodgson et al, 2004 US 280/236 18–74 35–56 vs. 23–27 1.5 (0.7–3.2) ≥23–27 vs. 19–22 3.5 (2.0–5.9) YES - PA in African American
  1. * Adjusted for mutually parental age; Adjusted for other risk factors of breast cancer risk including family history of breast cancer in 1st or 2nd degree relatives and reproductive history; 1Mortality of breast cancer, relative hazard; 2Paired t test