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Table 1 Characteristics of lung cancer cases and matched controls

From: Cardiac glycosides use and the risk of lung cancer: a nested case–control study

Characteristic Cases Controls
n = 1237 n = 12,320
Agea, mean (SD) 77.3 (8.1) 76.8 (8.0)
  <50 years, n (%) 2 (0.2) 20 (0.2)
  50-70 years, n (%) 248 (20.0) 2695 (21.9)
  >71 years, n (%) 987 (79.8) 9605 (78.0)
Malea, n (%) 818 (66.1) 8137 (66.0)
Follow-up time, yearsa; Mean (SD) 4.9 (3.2) 4.9 (3.2)
Smoking, n (%)   
  Never 134 (10.8) 4780 (38.8)
  Everb 1031 (83.3) 6531 (53.0)
  Unknown 72 (5.8) 1009 (8.2)
Excessive alcohol use, n (%) 143 (11.6) 970 (7.9)
Body mass index, n (%)   
  <18.5 kg/m2 29 (2.3) 172 (1.4)
  18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 365 (29.5) 3095 (25.1)
  25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2 390 (31.5) 4150 (33.7)
  ≥ 30.0 kg/m2 241 (19.5) 2782 (22.6)
  Unknown 212 (17.1) 2121 (17.2)
Cohort entry indicationc, n (%)   
  Chronic heart Failure 612 (49.5) 4782 (38.8)
  Atrial fibrillation 561 (45.4) 6873 (55.8)
  Atrial flutter or supra ventricular tachycardia 64 (5.2) 665 (5.4)
Comorbidities, n (%)   
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 428 (34.6) 1658 (13.5)
  Heart and vascular diseases 697 (56.3) 6042 (49.0)
  Pneumonia 740 (59.8) 5716 (46.4)
  Tuberculosis 22 (1.8) 224 (1.8)
  Other chronic lung diseases 333 (26.9) 2194 (17.8)
  Sexual hormone disorders 7 (0.6) 84 (0.7)
Concomitant drugs, n (%)   
  Amiodarone 77 (6.2) 825 (6.7)
  Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs 186 (15.0) 1954 (15.9)
  Anti-hypertensives 1093 (88.4) 10701 (86.9)
  Oral anticoagulants and antiplatelets 443 (35.8) 4941 (40.1)
  Aspirin 578 (46.7) 5857 (47.5)
  Statins 532 (43.0) 5240 (42.5)
  Oral estrogen contraceptives and hormone replacement therapyd 17 (4.1) 114 (2.7)
  Anti-diabetic agents 143 (11.6) 1453 (11.8)
  1. aMatching variables along with year of cohort entry.
  2. bIncludes current and former smokers.
  3. cDefined as the first ever recorded diagnosis.
  4. dAmong women only.