14-3-3σ induces HSF-1 expression via regulating β-catenin. (A) 14-3-3σ-induced HSF-1 expression was abolished by knockdown of β-catenin in stable cells and (B) SK-Hep1 cells. (C) 14-3-3σ-induced HSF-1 expression was attenuated by overexpression with wild type (WT) and constitutively activated (CA) mutant of GSK-3β. Expression of β-catenin, HSF-1, HSP70 and Flag was determined by Western blot analysis. Actin was used as a loading control. (D) Migratory ability was determined by a Boyden chamber assay. Knockdown of β-catenin with siRNA suppressed cell migration in 14-3-3σ stably overexpressed cells and (E) SK-Hep1 cells. Scale bars: mean ± SD. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01.