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Table 1 Main characteristics of the studies on tea consumption and five selected cancer included in the meta-analysis

From: Tea consumption and the risk of five major cancers: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies

Reference Country Study design Sampling Tea type Number of participants Number of cases Age Follow-up(year) Male (%)
Breast Cancer
Fagherazzi et al. 2011 [57] France Cohort Population based (E3N study) Tea (unclear) 67703 2868 40-65 11 0 (0)
Iwasaki et al. 2010 [60] Japan Cohort Population based (JPHC study) Green tea & Black tea 53793 845 40-69 13.6 0 (0)
Dai et al. 2010 [33] China Cohort Population based (SWHS study) Green tea 72861 614 40-70 7.3 0 (0)
Boggs et al. 2010 [56] USA Cohort Population based (BWHS study) Tea (unclear) 52062 1268 21-69 12 0 (0)
Pathy et al. 2010 [55] Dutch Cohort Population based (EPIC-NL study) Tea (unclear) 27323 681 20-70 9.6 0 (0)
Larsson et al. 2009 [61] Sweden Cohort Population based (Swedish Mammography Cohort) Black tea 66651 2952 40-76 17.4 0 (0)
Ishitani et al. 2008 [25] USA Cohort Population based (Women’s Health Study) Tea (unclear) 38432 1188 >45 10 0 (0)
Ganmaa et al. 2008 [58] USA Cohort Registered nurses (Nurses’ Health Study) Tea (unclear) 85987 5272 30-55 22 0 (0)
Hirvonen et al. 2006 [54] France Cohort Double-blind placebo-controlled primary-prevention trial (SU.VI.MAX Study) Tea (unclear) 4396 95 35-60 6.6 0 (0)
Adebamowo et al. 2005 [49] USA Cohort Registered nurses (Nurses’ Health Study II) Tea (unclear) 90638 710 25-46 4 0 (0)
Suzuki et al. 2004 [63] Japan Cohort Population based Green tea 35004 222 40-64 7-9 0 (0)
Michels et al. 2002 [62] Sweden Cohort Population based (Swedish Mammography Screening Cohort) Tea (unclear) 59036 1271 40-76 10.8 0 (0)
Key et al. 1999 [51] Japan Cohort Hiroshima or Nagasaki bombings survivor (LSS study) Green tea & Black tea 34759 405 <40 to >80 1969-1993 0 (0)
Zheng et al. 1996 [41] USA Cohort Population based (Iowa Women’sHealth Study) Non-herbal tea 35369 1602 55-69 8 0 (0)
Goldbohm et al. 1996 [59] Netherlands Case-cohort Population based (Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer) Black tea 1376 507 55-69 4.3 0 (0)
Colorectal Cancer
Dominianni et al. 2013 [29] USA Cohort Population based (The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial) Tea 57398 683 55-74 11.4 27596 (48.1)
Sinha et al. 2012 [10] USA Cohort Population based (NIH-AARP Study) Tea (unclear) 489706 6946 50-71 10.5 292211 (59.7)
Yang et al. 2011 [11] China Cohort Population based (SMHS Study) Green tea 60567 243 40-74 4.6 60567 (100)
Simons et al. 2010 [38] Netherlands Case-cohort Population based (NLCS Study) Tea (unclear) 3877 2199 55-69 13.3 58279 (48.2)
Lee et al. 2007 [26] Japan Cohort Population based (JPHC study) Green tea 96162 1163 52.1 10 46023(47.9)
Oba et al. 2006 [31] Japan Cohort Population based (Cohort in Takayama) Green tea 30221 213 >35 1992-2000 13894 (46.0)
Michels et al. 2005 [39] USA Cohort Registered nurses and health professionals (NHS and HPFS) Tea (unclear) 133893 1402 30-75 18 and 12 46099 (34.4)
Suzuki et al. 2005 [44] Japan Cohort Population based Green tea 26311 269 40-64 8-9 -
Su et al. 2002 [28] USA Cohort Population based (NHEFS study) Tea (unclear) 10011 219 25-74 20 -
Terry et al. 2001 [45] Sweden Cohort Population based (The Swedish Mammography Screening Cohort) Black tea 61463 460 40-76 9.6 0 (0)
Nagano et al. 2001 [18] Japan Cohort Atomic bomb survivor (LSS study) Green tea 38540 596 55.3 16 14873 (38.6)
Hartman et al. 1998 [40] Finnish RCT Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prevention trial (ATBC Study) Tea (unclear) 27029 185 57.2 6.1 27111 (100)
Zheng et al. 1996 [41] USA Cohort Population based (Iowa Women’s Health Study) Non-herbal tea 35369 474 55-69 8 0 (0)
Goldbohm et al. 1996 [59] Netherlands Case-cohort Population based (Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer) Black tea 2929 564 55-69 4.3 0 (0)
Nechuta et al. 2012 [27] China Cohort Population based (Shanghai Women’s Health Study) Tea (any) 69310 586 40-70 11 0 (0)
Liver Cancer
Nechuta et al. 2012 [27] China Cohort Population based (Shanghai Women’s Health Study) Tea (any) 69310 134 40-70 11 0 (0)
Ui et al. 2009 [65] Japan Cohort Population based (Ohsaki Cohort study) Green tea 41761 247 40-79 9 19748 (47.3)
Inoue et al. 2009 [64] Japan Cohort Population based (Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study Cohort II) Green tea 18815 110 40-69 12.7 6420 (34.1)
Nagano et al. 2001 [18] Japan Cohort Atomic bomb survivor (LSS study) Green tea 38540 391 55.3 16 14873 (38.6)
Prostate Cancer
Geybels et al. 2013 [69] Netherlands Case-cohort Population based (The Netherlands Cohort Study) Black tea 5490 3362 55-69 17.3 5490 (100)
Montague et al. 2012 [30] Singepore Cohort Population based (Singapore Chinese Health Study) Green tea & Black tea 27293 298 45-74 11.2 27293 (100)
Shafique et al. 2012 [68] Canada Cohort Employed men and women (Collaborative Cohort Study) Tea (unclear) 6016 186 21-75 28 6016 (100)
Kurahashi et al. 2008 [67] Japan Cohort Population based (Singapore Chinese Health Study) Green tea 49920 404 40-69 15 49920 (100)
Kikuchi et al. 2006 [66] Japan Cohort Population based (Ohsaki Cohort Study) Green tea 18961 110 40-79 7 18961 (100)
Allen et al. 2004 [50] Japan Cohort Atomic-Bomb Survivors (LSS Study) Green tea & Black tea 18115 193 18-99 16.9 18115 (100)
Ellision et al. 2000 [53] Canada Cohort Population based (NCS Study) Tea (unclear) 3400 145 50-84 20 3400 (100)
Stomach Cancer
Nechuta et al. 2012 [27] China Cohort Population based (Shanghai Women’s Health Study) Tea (any) 69310 293 40-70 11 0 (0)
Inoue et al. 2009 [43] Japan Cohort Pooled Study (JPHC-I, JPHC-II, JACC, MIYAGI,3-pref MIYAGI,3-pref AICHI) Green tea 219080 3577 40-103 8-15 100479 (45.9)
Sauvaget et al. 2005 [52] Japan Cohort Atomic-Bomb Survivors (LSS Study) Green tea 38576 1270 34-98 1980-1999 14885 (38.6)
Galanis et al. 1998 [42] Japan Cohort Population based Green tea 11907 108 46.4 14.8 5610 (47.1)
Goldbohm et al. 1996 [59] Netherlands Case-cohort Population based (Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer) Black tea 2929 182 55-69 4.3 0 (0)
Reference Response rate Assessment of exposure Adjustments       Quality score (NOS stars)
Breast Cancer
Fagherazzi et al. 2011 [57] UK Self-administered FFQ Total energy intake, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at menarche, age at menopause, number of children, age at first pregnancy, history of breast cancer in the family and years of schooling, current use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, personal history of benign breast disease, menopausal status and BMI 7
Iwasaki et al. 2010 [60] >80% Self-administered FFQ Age, area, age at menarche, menopausal status at baseline, number of births, age at first birth, height, BMI, alcohol intake, smoking status, leisure time physical activity, daily physical activity, exogenous hormone use, family history of breast cancer, oolong tea intake, black tea intake, coffee intake, canned coffee intake and Sencha and Bancha/Genmaicha intake. 8
Dai et al. 2010 [33] 92% In-person interview (frequency of tea consumption) Age, educational achievement, income, family history of breast cancer, history of fibro adenoma, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, physically active, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, passive smoking status, ginseng intake, age at menarche, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, use of hormone replacement therapy, and dietary intake of total energy, fruits, vegetables, red meat, fish, and isoflavones. 9
Boggs et al. 2010 [56] >80% Self-administered FFQ Age, energy intake, age at menarche, BMI at age 18, family history of breast cancer, education, geographic region, parity, age at first birth, oral contraceptive use, menopausal status, age at menopause, female hormone use, vigorous activity, smoking status, alcohol intake, coffee and decaffeinated coffee 8
Pathy et al. 2010 [55] UK Self-administered FFQ Propensity score (based on age, smoking status, educational status, BMI, alcohol intake, energy intake, energy adjusted saturated fat intake, energy adjusted fiber intake, coffee intake, physical activity level, ever use of oral contraceptives, presence of hypercholesterolemia, family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, parity, and cohort) 7
Larsson et al. 2009 [61] 74% Self-administered FFQ Age, education, body mass index, height, parity, age at first birth, age at menarche, age at menopause, use of oral contraceptives, use of postmenopausal hormones, family history of breast cancer, intakes of total energy, alcohol and coffee 7
Ishitani et al. 2008 [25] 100% Self-administered FFQ Age, randomized treatment assignment, body mass index, physical activity, total energy intake, alcohol intake, multivitamin use, age at menopause, age at menarche, age at first pregnancy lasting ≥6 months, number of pregnancies lasting ≥6 months, menopausal status, postmenopausal hormone use, prior hysterectomy, prior bilateral oophorectomy, smoking status, family history of breast cancer in mother or a sister, and history of benign breast disease 8
Ganmaa et al. 2008 [58] 90% Self-administered FFQ Age months, smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, height, alcohol intake, family history of breast cancer in mother or a sister, history of benign breast disease, menopausal status, age at menopause, use of hormone therapy, age at menarche, parity and age at first birth, weight change after18 and duration of postmenopausal hormone use and Coffee 7
Hirvonen et al. 2006 [54] UK Self-administered 24 h dietary record Age, smoking, number of children, use of oral contraception, family history of breast cancer, and menopausal status 7
Adebamowo et al. 2005 [49] >90% Self-administered FFQ Age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, family history of breast cancer in mother and/or sister, history of benign breast disease, oral contraceptive use, alcohol consumption, energy intake, current body mass index, height, smoking habit, physical activity and menopausal status 7
Suzuki et al. 2004 [63] 94% Self-administered FFQ Age, types of health insurance, age at menarche, menopausal status, age at first birth, parity, mother’s history of breast cancer, smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index and consumption frequencies of black tea and coffee 8
Michels et al. 2002 [62] 76% Self-administered FFQ Age, family history of breast cancer, height, body mass index, education, parity, age at first birth, alcohol consumption, total caloric intake 7
Key et al. 1999 [51] 53.4% Self-administered FFQ Attained age, calendar period, city, age at time of bombing and radiation dose 6
Zheng et al. 1996 [41] 42.3% Self-administered FFQ Age, education, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, physical activity, all fruit and vegetable Intake, waist/hip ratio, and family history of cancer, age at menarche, age at menopause, age at first pregnancy 7
Goldbohm et al. 1996 [59] UK Self-administered FFQ Benign breast disease, history of breast cancer in mother and sisters, age at menarche, age at menopause, use of oral contraceptives, age atfirst birth, parity, body mass index, smoking status, education, and intakes of energy, fat, and alcohol 7
Colorectal Cancer
Dominianni et al. 2013 [29] 78% Self-administered FFQ Age, gender, race, family history of colorectal cancer, education, body mass index, physical activity, smoking status, NSAID intake, history of diabetes, number of colorectal examinations up to 3 years before the start of study, hormone use, fruit intake, vegetable intake, meat intake, alcohol intake and study centre. 7
Sinha et al. 2012 [10] UK Self-administered FFQ Age, sex, race, education, smoking status, time since quitting for former smokers, smoking dose, ever smoke a pipe or cigar, diabetes, colorectal screening, family history of colorectal cancer, regular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, marital status, BMI, frequency of vigorous physical activity, calories, fruit and vegetables, red meat, dietary calcium intake, alcohol, and menopausal hormone therapy in women 7
Yang et al. 2011 [11] 74.1% In-person interview (frequency of tea consumption) Age, education, cigarette smoking, pack-years of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, body mass index, history ofdiabetes, family history of colorectal cancer and intakes of vegetables, fruits and red meat 8
Simons et al. 2010 [38] UK Self-administered FFQ Age, family history of CRC, non-occupational physical activity, smoking status, educational level, body mass index, ethanol intake, meat intake, processed meat intake, foliate intake, vitamin B6 intake, fiber intake, and fluid intake from other fluids 7
Lee et al. 2007 [26] 79% Self-administered FFQ BMI, smoking status, alcohol drinking, family history of colorectal cancer, physical activity, and intake of green vegetables, beef, pork, green tea, Chinese tea and black tea 7
Oba et al. 2006 [31] 92% Self-administered FFQ Age, height, BMI, total pack-years of cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, black tea intake and green tea/coffee intake. 8
Suzuki et al. 2005 [44] 91.7% Self-administered FFQ Sex, age, family history of colorectal cancer, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, consumption of black tea, and coffee. Cohort1 adjusted for consumption of meat, green-yellow vegetables, other vegetables, and fruits. Cohort2 adjusted for consumption of beef, pork, ham, chicken, liver, spinach, carrot or pumpkin, tomato, orange, other fruits, and juice 8
Michels et al. 2005 [39] 100% and 96% Self-administered FFQ Age, family history of colorectal cancer, history of sigmoidoscopy, height, body mass index, pack-years of smoking, physical activity, aspirin use, vitamin supplement intake, alcohol consumption, red meat consumption, total caloric intake, and, among women in addition for menopausal status, postmenopausal hormone use. 7
Su et al. 2002 [28] 92.2% In-person interviews (24 h food recall) Baseline age, race, education level, BMI, aspirin use, dietary intakes of calories, fat, fiber and calcium, and alcohol use at baseline. 9
Terry et al. 2001 [45] 98% Self-administered FFQ Age in 5-yr age groups, body mass index (quartiles), education level (3 categories), quartiles of total calories, red meat, coffee, alcohol, energy-adjusted total fat, fruit fiber, vegetable fiber, cereal fiber, calcium, vitamin C, folic acid, and vitamin D. 8
Nagano et al. 2001 [18] 72% Self-administered FFQ City, age, gender, radiation exposure, smoking status, alcohol drinking, body mass index, education level, calendar time 6
Hartman et al. 1998 [40] _ Self-administered FFQ Age, intervention group, calcium, occupational physical activity, and BMI. 7
Zheng et al. 1996 [41] 42.3% Self-administered FFQ Age, education, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, physical activity, all fruit and vegetable Intake, waist/hip ratio, and family history of cancer 7
Goldbohm et al. 1996 [59] 96% Self-administered FFQ Benign breast disease, history of breast cancer in mother and sisters, age at menarche, age at menopause, use of oral contraceptives, age at first birth, parity, body mass index, smoking status, education, and intakes of energy, fat, and alcohol 8
Nechuta et al. 2012 [27] 99.8% In-person interview, self-administered FFQ age, marital status, education, occupation, BMI, exercise, fruit and vegetable intake, meat intake, diabetes, and family history of digestive system cancer 9
Liver Cancer
Nechuta et al. 2012 [27] 99.8% In-person interview, self-administered FFQ age, marital status, education, occupation, BMI, exercise, fruit and vegetable intake, meat intake, diabetes, and family history of digestive system cancer 9
Ui et al. 2009 [65] 94.6% Self-administered FFQ Age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking status, coffee consumption, vegetable consumption, dairy products consumption, fruit consumption, fish consumption, soybean consumption 8
Inoue et al. 2009 [64] 82% Self-administered FFQ Sex, age, area, smoking status, weekly ethanol intake, body mass index, history of diabetes mellitus, coffee consumption, green tea consumption, serum ALT level, HCV infection status, and HBV infection status 8
Nagano et al. 2001 [18] 72% Self-administered FFQ City, age, gender, radiation exposure, smoking status, alcohol drinking, body mass index, education level, calendar time 7
Prostate Cancer
Geybels et al. 2013 [69] 96% Self-administered FFQ Age 8
Montague et al. 2012 [30] UK In-person Interview Age, dialect group, interview year, education, body mass index and smoking history, green/black tea intake 8
Shafique et al. 2012 [68] 70% Self-administered FFQ Age, body mass index, smoking status, coffee consumption, alcohol intake, cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, social class, and years of full-time education 7
Kurahashi et al. 2008 [67] 77% Self-administered FFQ Age, area, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, marital status, and coffee, black tea, and miso soup consumption, fruits, green or yellow vegetables, dairy food, soy food, and genistein consumption 7
Kikuchi et al. 2006 [66] 95% Self-administered FFQ Age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking status, marital status, daily calorie intake, daily calcium intake, walking duration, consumption frequencies of black tea and coffee and consumption frequencies of fish 8
Allen et al. 2004 [50] UK Interview-based FFQ Age, calendar period, city of residence, radiation dose and education level 7
Ellision et al. 2000 [53] 47% In-person interviews (24 h food recall and one month food frequency) Age, coffee, cola, total alcohol, beer, wine, spirits, smoking status, pack-years smoking, body mass index, highest education level attained, respondent status, intake of fiber, fat, calories. 8
Stomach Cancer
Nechuta et al. 2012 [27] 99.8% In-person interview, self-administered FFQ Age, marital status, education, occupation, BMI, exercise, fruit and vegetable intake, meat intake, diabetes, and family history of digestive system cancer 9
Inoue et al. 2009 [43] 82%, 80%, 83%, 92%, 94%, 90% Self-administered FFQ Age, area, smoking, ethanol intake, rice intake, soy bean paste soup, and coffee intake, pickled vegetable intake and green–yellow vegetable intake 8
Sauvaget et al. 2005 [52] 72.5% Self-administered FFQ Sex, sex-specific age, city, radiation dose, sex-specific smoking habits, and education level. 6
Galanis et al. 1998 [42] 95% Self-administered FFQ Age, years of education, Japanese place of birth, and gender. Analyses among men were also adjusted for cigarette smoking and alcohol intake status 8
Goldbohm et al. 1996 [59] 72% Self-administered FFQ Benign breast disease, history of breast cancer in mother and sisters, age at menarche, age at menopause, use of oral contraceptives, age at first birth, parity, body mass index, smoking status, education, and intakes of energy, fat, and alcohol 7
  1. UK: unknown; FFQ: food frequency questionnaire.