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Table 2 Associations (multivariable a adjusted incidence RRs) between alcohol consumption and risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer; Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS), 19862003

From: Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and the risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

   Subcohort Head-neck cancer cases
    Overall Subtypes   
      OCCb   OHPCb   LCb   
  Categorical median Person time at risk (years) No. of cases RR (95% CI) No. of cases RR (95% CI) No. of cases RR (95% CI) No. of cases RR (95% CI) Pfor heterogeneity
Alcohol consumption (grams ethanol/day)
Abstainers 0 15 255 49 1 (reference) 12 1 (reference) 11 1 (reference) 26 1 (reference) 0.86
>0 to <5 2 19 008 67 1.11 (0.75-1.65) 17 1.25 (0.59-2.65) 14 1.06 (0.47-2.40) 36 1.03 (0.60-1.77)  
5 to <15 9 14 468 72 1.15 (0.77-1.71) 19 1.91 (0.91-4.03) 12 0.90 (0.38-2.13) 40 0.94 (0.56-1.58)  
15 to <30 22 9 961 92 1.52 (1.02-2.27) 30 3.88 (1.86-8.12) 13 0.99 (0.41-2.38) 49 1.10 (0.66-1.83)  
≥30 40 5 659 115 2.74 (1.85-4.06) 32 6.39 (3.13-13.03) 33 3.52 (1.69-7.36) 48 1.54 (0.91-2.60)  
P for trendc     <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   0.05  
Continuous, 10 gram            
ethanol/day increments            
Overall   64 352 395 1.20 (1.12-1.27) 110 1.28 (1.18-1.39) 83 1.27 (1.16-1.38) 199 1.10 (1.02-1.18) 0.18
Men   30 169 314 1.19 (1.12-1.27) 65 1.27 (1.17-1.38) 61 1.27 (1.16-1.39) 187 1.10 (1.03-1.19)  
Women   34 183 81 1.40 (1.18-1.65) 45 1.58 (1.33-1.87) 22 1.31 (0.91-1.87) 12 0.85 (0.46-1.59)  
P for interactiond     0.02   0.004   0.68   0.67  
Alcohol consumption (grams ethanol/day) stable users e
Abstainers 0 11 810 38 1 (reference) 9 1 (reference) 9 1 (reference) 20 1 (reference) 1.00
>0 to <5 2 11 813 36 0.98 (0.60-1.61) 12 1.65 (0.68-4.01) 7 0.86 (0.30-2.41) 17 0.72 (0.35-1.46)  
5 to <15 9 8 749 38 0.96 (0.58-1.59) 9 1.68 (0.63-4.47) 8 0.89 (0.32-2.47) 21 0.72 (0.37-1.40)  
15 to <30 22 5 293 45 1.27 (0.76-2.11) 12 3.20 (1.25-8.19) 6 0.72 (0.23-2.26) 27 0.96 (0.50-1.83)  
≥30 42 3 047 69 2.90 (1.78-4.73) 17 7.50 (3.15-17.88) 20 3.46 (1.46-8.20) 31 1.57 (0.82-3.02)  
P for trend     <0.001   <0.001   0.001   0.03  
Continuous, 10 grams   39712 226 1.26 (1.16-1.36) 59 1.37 (1.24-1.52) 50 1.35 (1.20-1.52) 116 1.16 (1.04-1.28) 0.72
ethanol/day increments            
Alcoholic beverages (glasses/day) f
Beer            
No beer 0 43 519 183 1 (reference) 59 1 (reference) 36 1 (reference) 87 1 (reference) 0.84
>0- < 1 0.2 16 408 129 0.94 (0.71-1.24) 34 1.10 (0.65-1.86) 24 0.98 (0.54-1.76) 69 0.85 (0.60-1.22)  
1- < 2 1.4 2 853 37 1.12 (0.72-1.74) 8 1.17 (0.49-2.77) 6 1.04 (0.41-2.66) 23 1.19 (0.71-2.01)  
≥2 3.4 1 554 46 1.39 (0.83-2.34) 9 0.99 (0.34-2.82) 17 2.48 (1.03-5.98) 20 1.30 (0.69-2.46)  
P for trend     0.14   0.95   0.03   0.20  
Continuous, 1   64 335 395 1.07 (0.97-1.19) 110 0.97 (0.80-1.16)g 83 1.19 (1.01-1.40) 199 1.08 (0.96-1.23) 0.07
glass/day increments            
Wine            
No wine 0 30 263 197 1 (reference) 44 1 (reference) 38 1 (reference) 114 1 (reference) 0.93
>0- < 1 0.2 25 975 132 0.88 (0.67-1.14) 40 1.07 (0.67-1.71) 33 1.01 (0.59-1.75) 57 0.74 (0.52-1.05)  
1- < 2 1.4 5 277 39 0.95 (0.63-1.44) 14 1.31 (0.67-2.55) 5 0.52 (0.19-1.39) 20 1.07 (0.63-1.83)  
≥2 2.6 2 751 24 0.56 (0.29-1.07) 11 0.93 (0.34-2.57) 7 0.52 (0.15-1.81)g 6 0.39 (0.15-0.99)  
P for trend     0.15   0.93   0.16   0.21  
Continuous, 1   64 265 392 0.88 (0.74-1.05) 109 0.89 (0.69-1.16) 83 0.86 (0.64-1.17) 197 0.88 (0.68-1.14) 0.26
glass/day increments            
Liquor            
No liquor 0 33 299 137 1 (reference) 40 1 (reference) 34 1 (reference) 63 1 (reference) 0.44
>0- < 1 0.2 23 492 133 1.09 (0.84-1.43) 31 1.10 (0.67-1.80) 23 0.86 (0.48-1.53) 78 1.17 (0.81-1.67)  
1- < 2 1.9 5 370 67 1.09 (0.76-1.57) 18 1.65 (0.87-3.15) 12 0.79 (0.39-1.62) 37 1.08 (0.67-1.74)  
≥2 2.8 2 115 56 1.18 (0.71-1.95) 20 2.26 (1.02-4.99) 14 0.83 (0.33-2.13) 20 0.95 (0.47-1.93)  
P for trend     0.61   0.03   0.64   0.83  
Continuous, 1   64 275 393 1.01 (0.86-1.18) 109 1.18 (0.89-1.56) 83 0.89 (0.68-1.15) 198 0.98 (0.80-1.21) 0.25
glass/day increments            
  1. aAdjusted for age (years), sex, cigarette smoking (status (never/former/current), frequency (continuous; centered), and duration (continuous; centered)).
  2. bOCC: oral cavity cancer; OHPC: oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer; LC: laryngeal cancer.
  3. cTests for dose-response trends were assessed by fitting ordinal variables as continuous terms in the Cox proportional hazards model.
  4. d P Value for interaction between sex and alcohol consumption, based on cross-product terms in the Cox proportional hazards model and Wald test.
  5. eSubjects who had not changed their continuous alcohol consumption habits in the 5 years before baseline: for “beer” and “other alcoholic beverages”, participants could indicate whether 5 years before baseline they drunk (1) more than, (2) equal amounts of or (3) less than at baseline; the fourth answer option was (4) “I never use this”.
  6. fAdditionally adjusted for continuous ethanol intake (g ethanol/day).
  7. gProportional hazards assumption was possibly violated for the exposure variable, and there was a statistically significant interaction with time.