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Table 1 Characteristics of cases and subcohort members in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS), 1986 - 2003

From: Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and the risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

  Subcohort Head-neck cancer cases
   Overall Subtypes
    OCCa OHPCa LCa
Exposure variables and potential confounders ( N = 4288)b ( N = 395)b (N = 110)b (N = 83)b (N = 199)b
Age at baseline (years) 61.3 (4.2)c 61.8 (4.1) 61.8 (4.3) 61.5 (4.2) 61.8 (4.0)
Sex: men (%) 49.2 79.5 59.1 73.5 94.0
Abstainer from alcohol (%) 23.9 12.4 10.9 13.3 13.1
 Men (%) 14.8 9.2 4.6 9.8 10.7
 Women (%) 32.6 24.7 20.0 22.7d 50.0e
Alcohol consumers:      
Ethanol intake (grams/day) 13.4 (15.0) 27.3 (25.6) 28.7 (25.4) 35.0 (31.6) 23.2 (22.1)
 Men 17.5 29.1 34.3 40.2 23.5
 Women 8.5 18.6 19.1 18.0 14.7
Beer intake (glasses/week) 2.2 (5.8) 6.3 (12.5) 4.4 (10.2) 10.3 (18.3) 5.8 (10.4)
 Men 3.7 6.9 6.1 11.1 5.8
 Women 0.3 3.5 1.4 7.9 4.5
Wine intake (glasses/week) 3.7 (5.6) 4.4 (9.1) 5.5 (8.1) 6.0 (11.5) 3.1 (8.4)
 Men 3.1 4.0 4.2 6.7 3.1
 Women 4.4 6.0 7.7 3.5 4.1
Liquor intake (glasses/week) 2.9 (5.7) 7.3 (10.0) 8.4 (11.2) 7.7 (11.7) 6.4 (8.3)
 Men 4.6 8.2 11.5 9.4 6.6
 Women 0.9 3.0 3.1 1.9 1.9
Cigarette smoking status      
Total      
 Never smokers (%) 36.9 11.1 26.4 7.2 4.5
 Former smokers (%) 35.5 27.9 21.8 26.5 32.2
 Current smokers (%) 27.6 61.0 51.8 66.3 63.3
Men      
 Never smokers (%) 13.8 6.7 16.9 4.9 3.7
 Former smokers (%) 51.4 31.5 27.7 29.5 33.7
 Current smokers (%) 34.8 61.8 55.4 65.6 62.6
Women      
 Never smokers (%) 59.4 28.4 40.0 13.6d 16.7e
 Former smokers (%) 20.0 13.6 13.3 18.2 8.3
 Current smokers (%) 20.6 58.0 46.7 68.2 75.0
Ever cigarette smokers:      
Frequency of cigarette smoking (N/day) 15.3 (10.2) 19.5 (10.9) 19.9 (11.9) 21.4 (12.7) 18.6 (9.6)
 Men 17.1 19.9 21.6 22.9 18.4
 Women 11.6 17.4 16.5 16.7 22
Duration of cigarette smoking (years) 31.7 (12.1) 39.1 (9.5) 37.8 (9.2) 38.5 (9.8) 39.9 (9.4)
 Men 33.6 39.8 38.9 39.8 40.0
 Women 27.8 35.8 35.4 34.5 38.2
Pack-years of cigarette smoking (N) 22.8 (17.7) 34.4 (20.9) 34.5 (23.5) 37.0 (23.2) 33.5 (18.9)
 Men 26.2 35.7 38.5 40.5 33.2
 Women 16.0 28.3 26.4 26.3 38.5
Level of education (%)      
 Primary 29.5 27.6 20.9 25.6 31.5
 Lower vocational 22.0 18.9 17.3 17.1 20.8
 Secondary and medium vocational 34.8 35.7 41.8 36.6 32.5
 University and higher vocational 13.8 17.9 20.0 20.7 15.2
  1. aOCC: oral cavity cancer; OHPC: oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer; LC: laryngeal cancer.
  2. bThe number of subcohort members or cases used in age- and sex-adjusted, multivariate analyses of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking.
  3. cValues are given as mean (SD); for categorical variables, N (%) is presented.
  4. dBased on only 22 female OHPC cases.
  5. eBased on only 12 female LC cases.