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Table 2 Mortality hazard ratio a following ovarian cancer diagnosis associated with ß-blocker use, overall and by cancer stage at diagnosis b

From: Use of ß-blockers and mortality following ovarian cancer diagnosis: a population-based cohort study

  Number of deaths (%) Median years of follow-up Crude HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI)c
Overall     
Nonusers 4,106 (66.59) 2.56 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Current users 245 (65.68) 2.65 1.04 (0.91–1.18) 1.17 (1.02–1.34)
Previous users 55 (63.22) 2.14 1.03 (0.79–1.35) 1.18 (0.90–1.55)
Localized cancer     
Nonusers 722 (39.07) 10.58 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Current users 46 (35.94) 7.87 0.97 (0.72–1.31) 1.01 (0.73–1.39)
Previous users 13 (46.43) 7.07 1.44 (0.83–2.50) 1.57 (0.90–2.76)
Regional metastasis     
Nonusers 1,409 (72.97) 2.54 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Current users 75 (77.32) 2.21 1.21 (0.96–1.52) 1.52 (1.18–1.95)
Previous users 10 (62.50) 1.42 0.95 (0.51–1.77) 0.89 (0.46–1.69)
Distant metastasis     
Nonusers 1,602 (83.44) 1.25 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Current users 96 (86.49) 1.10 1.09 (0.89–1.35) 1.18 (0.95–1.47)
Previous users 24 (72.73) 1.86 0.70 (0.47–1.05) 0.91 (0.60–1.37)
  1. CI: Confidence interval.
  2. a Obtained using Cox proportional hazards models.
  3. b Classified according to Summary Staging classification with the TNM grouping translated as localized (TNM: T1–4, N0, M0), regional (TNM: T1–4, N1–3, M0), distant (TNM: T1–4, N1–3, M1), or unknown/missing.
  4. c Adjusted for age (20–40, 41–60, 61–80, ≥80 years), comorbidity level, prior use of diuretics (yes/no), year of diagnosis, aspirin (yes/no), and statins (yes/no). Comorbidity was computed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index score categorized into low (0), medium (1–2), or high (3+).