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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by benign prostatic hyperplasia

From: Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a significant risk factor for bladder cancer in diabetic patients: a population-based cohort study using the National Health Insurance in Taiwan

Variables BPH (−) BPH (+) P value
n % n % (Chi-square test)
n = 547584 465485 85.0 82099 15.0  
Age (years)      
  <40 28373 6.1 103 0.1 <0.0001
 40-49 88077 18.9 1692 2.1  
 50-59 144677 31.1 11014 13.4  
 60-69 106959 23.0 22785 27.8  
 ≥70 97399 20.9 46505 56.7  
Diabetes duration (years)      
 <1 43069 9.3 1921 2.3 <0.0001
 1-3 83311 17.9 6379 7.8  
 3-5 7748 16.7 9061 11.0  
 ≥5 261623 56.2 64738 78.9  
Nephropathy 53002 11.4 19913 24.3 <0.0001
Urinary tract diseases 59012 12.7 33818 41.2 <0.0001
Hypertension 248296 53.3 63518 77.4 <0.0001
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 60418 13.0 25837 31.5 <0.0001
Cerebrovascular disease 59318 12.7 23756 28.9 <0.0001
Ischemic heart disease 95649 20.6 33370 40.7 <0.0001
Peripheral arterial disease 52064 11.2 18708 22.8 <0.0001
Eye disease 75016 16.1 24855 30.3 <0.0001
Dyslipidemia 231613 49.8 42928 52.3 <0.0001
Heart failure 25584 5.5 11400 13.9 <0.0001
Obesity 6360 1.37 779 0.95 <0.0001
Alcohol-related diagnosis 14797 3.18 1885 2.30 <0.0001
Non-alcohol-related chronic liver disease 155679 33.44 30421 37.05 <0.0001
Rosiglitazone 64221 13.8 16898 20.6 <0.0001
Pioglitazone 22241 4.8 5191 6.3 <0.0001
Sulfonylurea 365375 78.5 74154 90.3 <0.0001
Meglitinide 51909 11.2 14783 18.0 <0.0001
Metformin 325652 70.0 69254 84.4 <0.0001
Acarbose 68578 14.7 18395 22.4 <0.0001
Insulin 68122 14.6 20951 25.5 <0.0001
Statin 133169 28.6 26302 32.0 <0.0001
Fibrate 106427 22.9 19705 24.0 <0.0001
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker 198383 42.6 52076 63.4 <0.0001
Calcium channel blocker 131769 28.3 40288 49.1 <0.0001
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 303900 65.3 72262 88.0 <0.0001
Alpha-blockers 50456 10.84 69086 84.15 <0.0001
5-alpha reductase inhibitors 425 0.09 3409 4.15 <0.0001
Clopidogrel 14395 3.09 5346 6.51 <0.0001
Ticlopidine 11315 2.43 5278 6.43 <0.0001
Dipyridamole 78550 16.87 30566 37.23 <0.0001
Cyclophosphamide 456 0.10 147 0.18 <0.0001
Diuretics 103397 22.21 36462 44.41 <0.0001
Other cancer prior to baseline 41311 8.9 18433 22.5 <0.0001
  1. BPH benign prostatic hyperplasia.