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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analyses for survival predictors in patients with brain metastasis from HCC

From: Brain metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma: the role of surgery as a prognostic factor

Variables No Median(wks) Univariate Multivariate
p-value HR 95% CI p-value
AGE    0.096 ND  
  <60 years 17 14.8 0.062
  ≥60 years 16 8.7  
Sex    0.178 ND  
  M 30 10.4 0.144
  F 3 8.4  
Symptoms#    0.412 ND  
  Minor 17 11.6 0.552
  Major 16 8.1  
Interval of diagnosis from primary tumor to brain metastasis     
  ≤12 months 11 15.6 0.239 ND   0.089
  >12 months 22 8.7     
ECOG PS 0.655 ND  
  ≤2 21 13.4 0.707
  >2 12 4.7  
RPA class 0.001 ND  
  I & II 29 13.4 0.575
  III 4 2.4  
Child-Pugh’s classification
  A 20 14.4 0.038 0.25 0.09-0.69 0.007
  B/C 13 8.4   1  
Number of HCC nodules
  1-3 18 9.6 0.389 ND 0.088
  ≥4 10 8.7    
Largest size of HCC
  ≤5 cm 18 14.4 0.094 ND 0.119
  >5 cm 15 6.0    
HCC type
  Well-defined 20 12.9 0.210 ND 0.072
  Ill-defined 13 8.7    
Main portal vein thrombosis
  No 18 10.4 0.202 ND 0.065
  Yes 15 8.7  
Chemotherapy for HCC (Sorafenib)
  No 23 9.6 0.735 ND 0.583
  Yes 10 10.4    
AFP
  ≤400 18 9.6 0.389 ND 0.174
  >400 10 8.7    
Lung metastasis
  No 9 21.9 0.197 ND 0.956
  Yes 24 9.4    
Number of brain metastasis
  Single 17 13.7 0.341 ND 0.800
  Multiple 16 8.1    
Hemorrhage of brain metastasis
  No 16 13.7 0.044 0.19 0.07-0.55 0.002
  Yes 17 8.1 1  
Treatment for brain metastasis
  Resection ± WBRT 10 25.3 <0.001 0.23 0.08-0.66 0.006
  GKS± WBRT /WBRT alone 17 10.4 1*   
  Steroid alone 6 1.0   
  1. # Minor; headache, dizziness, cranial nerve deficit, Major; mental status changes, motor weakness.
  2. * Reference variable: non-resection treatment groups.
  3. HCC; hepatocellular carcinoma, wks; weeks, AFP; alpha fetoprotein, WBRT; whole brain radiation therapy, GKS; gamma knife radiosurgery, ND; not determined.