Skip to main content

Table 2 Systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression results of hypoxia membrane protein expression in breast cancer, in situ carcinoma, benign breast disease, and normal breast tissue.

From: The potential of hypoxia markers as target for breast molecular imaging – a systematic review and meta-analysis of human marker expression

  CAIX GLUT1 CXCR4 IGF1R
N Prev. (CI) p-value* N Prev. (CI) p-value* N Prev. (CI) p-value* N Prev. (CI) p-value*
Invasive carcinoma                 
  Overall 36 0.35 (0.26-0.46) Ref 33 0.51 (0.40-0.61) Ref 28 0.46 (0.33-0.59) Ref 31 0.46 (0.35-0.70) Ref
  Membranous localization only 20 0.23 (0.17-0.31) - 19 0.44 (0.37-0.52) - 2 0.16 (0.08-0.31) - 15 0.38 (0.27-0.50) -
  Best evidence studies 6 0.38 (0.17-0.65) - 17 0.41 (0.35-0.48) - 7 0.43 (0.25-0.63) - 10 0.33 (0.22-0.46) -
Histological grade 12     10     13     5    
  I   0.04 (0.02-0.08) Ref   0.24 (0.18-0.31) Ref   0.26 (0.13-0.44) Ref   0.57 (0.51-0.63) Ref
  II   0.16 (0.10-0.24) <0.001   0.33 (0.20-0.50) 0.012   0.32 (0.17-0.52) 0.049   0.51 (0.49-0.54) 0.093
  III   0.30 (0.22-0.39) <0.001   0.58 (0.45-0.69) <0.001   0.44 (0.26-0.63) <0.001   0.41 (0.39-0.43) <0.001
Tumor size 7     6     12     4    
  T1   0.12 (0.11-0.14) Ref   0.37 (0.31-0.42) Ref   0.48 (0.28-0.69) Ref   0.45 (0.39-0.51) Ref
  T2   0.15 (0.11-0.20) <0.001   0.36 (0.29-0.43) 0.641   0.52 (0.28-0.74) 0.620   0.47 (0.44-0.49) 0.682
  T3   0.30 (0.17-0.47) <0.001   0.30 (0.14-0.53) 0.180   0.68 (0.53-0.80) 0.122   0.39 (0.32-0.47) 0.047
Histological type 13     14     10     6    
  Invasive ductal carcinoma   0.34 (0.20-0.52) Ref   0.48 (0.32-0.64) Ref   0.46 (0.22-0.72) Ref   0.42 (0.28-0.58) Ref
  Invasive lobular carcinoma   0.01 (0.00-0.05) 0.001   0.09 (0.01-0.40) <0.001   0.35 (0.00-0.98) 0.001   0.25 (0.08-0.55) <0.001
Specimen handling 36     32     28     31    
  Full sections   0.51 (0.37-0.64) Ref   0.61 (0.49-0.72) Ref   0.39 (0.28-0.51) Ref   0.34 (0.26-0.42) Ref
  Tissue microarray   0.24 (0.16-0.35) 0.002   0.30 (0.18-0.45) 0.003   0.61 (0.29-0.85) 0.173   0.57 (0.39-0.73) 0.032
Other tissue types 4     5     6     4    
  Normal breast tissue   0.02 (0.00-0.50) <0.001   0.03 (0.00-0.22) <0.001   0.03 (0.01-0.07) <0.001   0.74 (0.69-0.78) 0.109
  Benign breast diseases   0.06 (0.02-0.20) <0.001   0.04 (0.00-0.42) <0.001   0.04 (0.00-0.80) <0.001   0.73 (0.66-0.79) 0.137
  Carcinoma in situ   0.49 (0.31-0.68) 0.025   0.52 (0.42-0.62) 0.680   0.71 (0.23-0.95) <0.001   0.33 (0.18-0.53) 0.869
  1. *p-values obtained using meta-regression (linear mixed model with subgroup indicators as fixed and the individual studies as random effects); ref: reference category for the meta-regression result; N: Maximum number of studies evaluated for pooled estimate or meta regression; prev.: expression prevalence of the investigated target.