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Table 2 Associations between pioglitazone use and gastric cancer risk in a population-based nested case–control study

From: Association of thiazolidinediones with gastric cancer in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based case–control study

Variables Pioglitazone
Cases Controls Crude OR Adjusted OR Adjusted OR
N = 357 % N = 1,428 %
Nonuse 332 93.0 1,274 89.2 1.00 1.00 1.00
Any use 25 7.0 154 10.8 0.62* 0.65* 0.93
  Recent use 11 3.1 75 5.3 0.56* 0.54 0.70
  Past use 14 3.9 79 5.5 0.68* 0.77 1.28
Cumulative dosage  
  < 260 DDDs 15 4.2 75 5.3 0.77 0.78 1.19
  ≥ 260 DDDs 10 2.8 79 5.5 0.49* 0.52 0.70
Cumulative duration  
  < 1 year 17 4.8 89 6.2 0.73 0.74 1.14
  ≥ 1 year 8 2.2 65 4.6 0.47* 0.51 0.68
  1. : Multivariate model adjusted for age, sex, peptic ulcer history, ulcer bleeding history, Helicobacter pylori eradication rate, and comorbidities.
  2. : Multivariate model adjusted for age, sex, peptic ulcer history, ulcer bleeding history, Helicobacter pylori eradication rate, comorbidities, and medications.
  3. OR odds ratios, N number.
  4. *P < 0.05.