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Table 1 Description of study populations in alphabetical order of first author

From: Physical and psychosocial benefits of yoga in cancer patients and survivors, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Author, year Diagnosis; treatment number of participants (n); gender (%women); mean age (sd) and/or range eligibility criteria
Banasik, 2011 [56] Breast cancer, (>2 mo) post-treatment n = 18 (9Y, 9C) % women: 100% Age: 62.9 (7.1) years Inclusion women with stages II-IV breast cancer at least 2 months post-treatment.
Exclusion receiving Herceptin therapy, pregnant or lactating, had past or current history of other neoplasm, active serious infection or immune deficiency; history of psychiatric disorders or alcohol or drug abuse; steroid therapy or physical condition preventing yoga.
Banerjee, 2007 [51] Breast cancer, during radiotherapy n = 58 (35Y, 23C) % women: 100% Age: 44 (1.3) years Inclusion Recently operated breast cancer, age between 30 and 70 years, Zubrod’s performance status 0–2 (ambulatory >50% of the time), high school education, treatment plan of radiotherapy or both radiotherapy and chemotherapy, consent to participate in the study.
Exclusion Having any concurrent medical condition likely to interfere with the treatment; major psychiatric, neurological illness, or autoimmune disorders; cardiovascular illness; any known metastases. No exposure to other mutagens, smoking or alcohol for at least 3 months prior to pre-radiation blood donation.
Blank, 2003 [31] Breast cancer stage I-III receiving antiestrogen or aromatase inhibitor hormonal therapy N = 18 (9Y, 9C) % women: 100% Age: 48 – 69 years Inclusion minimum of eight weeks post chemotherapy, estrogen receptor positive status, surgery for lumpectomy, modified mastectomy or full mastectomy (with/without reconstruction), a life expectancy greater than six months, adequate blood cell counts and kidney, liver, and cardiac function, physical and mental ability to attend all the Yoga training sessions.
Exclusion women on Herceptin therapy, current steroid therapy, or other known immunomodulating medications, pregnancy or current lactation, a past or current history of another neoplasm, active serious infection or immune deficiency, documented alcohol or drug abuse, history of psychiatric disorders requiring use of psychotropic medication.
Bower, 2012 [58] Breast cancer state 0 – II, at least 6 months after adjuvant cancer therapy. n = 31 (16Y, 15C) % women: 100% Age: 54.4 (5.7) years Inclusion originally diagnosed with stage 0 to II breast cancer; completed local and/or adjuvant cancer therapy (with the exception of hormone therapy) at least 6 months previously; ages 40 to 65 years; postmenopausal; no other cancer in last 5 years; experiencing persistent cancer-related fatigue.
Exclusion chronic medical conditions or regular use of medications associated with fatigue; evidence that fatigue was driven primarily by a medical or psychiatric disorder other than cancer; evidence that fatigue was driven primarily by other noncancer-related factors; physical problems or conditions that could make yoga unsafe; a body mass index (BMI) >31 kg/m2.
Carson, 2009 [32] Breast cancer; no current treatment (4.9 ± 2.4 years since diagnose) n = 37 (17Y, 20C) % women: 100% Age: 54.4 (7.5) years Inclusion Experiencing at least one hot flash per day on 4 or more days per week; no signs of active breast cancer; no current cytotoxic chemotherapy; diagnosed with breast cancer at stages IA-IIB ≥ 2 years before; no hormone replacement therapy currently or within prior 3 months; stabilized on constant regime of menopausal symptom medications and supplements for at least 3 weeks; if taking antidepressants, stabilized at a fixed dose for at least 3 months.
Exclusion resided ≥ 70 miles from research site; unavailable to attend the intervention on the day and at the time offered; currently engaged in intensive yoga practice (> 3 days/week); having received treatment for serious psychiatric disorders (e.g. schizophrenia) in the previous 6 months; not English speaking
Chandwani, 2010 [55] Breast cancer, during radiotherapy N = 61 % women: 100% Age: 51.4 (8.0) range 37–68 years Inclusion Women with stage 0-III breast cancer; ≥ 18 years; able to read, write and speak English; scheduled to undergo radiotherapy.
Exclusion Patients who had any major psychiatric diagnosis or physical limitations that would prohibit participation in the yoga program.
Cohen, 2004 [44] Lymphoma (18% Hodgkin), 61,5% active treatment n = 39 % women: 61.5% Age: 51 years Inclusion Patients with lymphoma who were either receiving chemotherapy or had received it within the past 12 months; ≥ 18 years; able to read and speak English.
Exclusion Patients with major psychotic illnesses.
Culos-Reed, 2006 [52] Breast cancer (85%); no current treatment (> 3 mo post-treatment) n = 38 % women: 95% Age: 51.2 (10.3) years Inclusion Cancer survivors who were currently not undergoing active treatment; no additional health concerns; ≥ 18 years; minimum 3 months post-treatment.
Danhauer, 2009 [53] Breast cancer; 34% actively undergoing treatment n = 44 % women: 100% Age: 55.8 (9.9) years Inclusion Women ≥ 18 years; diagnosed with breast cancer; 2 to 24 months post-primary treatment (surgery) following initial diagnosis and/or had a recurrence of breast cancer within the past 24 months (regardless of treatment status); physically able to attend restorative yoga; able to understand English; free of medical contraindications reported by their physician.
Littman, 2011 [57] Breast cancer; > 3 mo post-treatment n = 63 % women: 100% Age: 60 (7.9) years Inclusion Age between 21 and 75 years; completion of breast cancer treatment (stage 0-III) at least 3 months prior, BMI ≥24 kg/m2 (or ≥23 kg/m2 if of Asian descent).
Exclusion Myocardial infarction or stroke in the previous 6 months, diabetes, current yoga practice, pregnancy or plans to become pregnant, factors that might lead to poor retention and yoga practice.
Moadel, 2007 [54] Breast cancer; 48% medical treatment n = 128 % women: 100% Age: 54.8 (9.9) range 28–75 years Inclusion Age ≥ 18 years; new/recurrent breast cancer (stages I-III) diagnosis within previous 5 years; high performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of < 3); ability to speak English or Spanish; not actively practicing yoga.
Raghavendra, 2007 [49] Breast cancer, during chemotherapy n = 62 % women: 100% Age: n = 33 < 50 yrs; n = 29 > 50 yrs Inclusion Recently diagnosed with operable breast cancer; aged between 30 and 70 years; Zubrod’s performance status 0–2; high school education; having a treatment plan with surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy or by both adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy; consenting to participate in the study.
Exclusion history of intestinal obstruction and any known sensitivity to any class of antiemetics.
Rao, 2009 [50] Breast cancer, during adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy n = 98; % women: 100% Age: ? Inclusion Recently diagnosed with operable breast cancer; aged between 30 and 70 years; Zubrod’s performance status 0–2; high school education; having a treatment plan with surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy; consenting to participate in the study.
Exclusion Having a concurrent medical condition likely to interfere with the treatment; any major psychiatric, neurological illness or autoimmune disorders; secondary malignancy.
Vadiraja, 2009 [4648] Breast cancer (stage II and III), during adjuvant n = 88; % women: 100% Age: 46 (9.1) yrs yoga; 48.4 (10.2) yrs C. Inclusion Recently diagnosed with operable breast cancer; aged between 30 and 70 years; Zubrod’s performance status 0–2; high school education; having a treatment plan with surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy or by both adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy; consenting to participate in the study.
Exclusion Having a concurrent medical condition likely to interfere with the treatment; any major psychiatric, neurological illness or autoimmune disorders; any known metastases; prescribed concurrent chemotherapy cycles during radiotherapy.