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Table 2 Selected details of the 287 studies of lung cancer

From: Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence in the 1900s relating smoking to lung cancer

Study REF Main ref Other refs Brief study descriptiona Outcome(s)b Casesc Full Histd Princ REFe
ABELIN [29] [30] Switzerland rural CC 1941-64 All 118 No  
ABRAHA [31] [32] Hungary Budapest cohort 1975-94 All,Sq,Ad 571 No  
AGUDO [33]   Spain Barcelona area CC 1989-92 All 103 No  
AKIBA [34] [3537] Japan atomic bomb survivors cohort 1963-87 All 610 No  
ALDERSf [38] [39, 40] UK CC 1977-82 All,Sq,Ad 1448 No  
AMANDU [41]   US metal miner cohort 1959-75 All 132 No  
AMES [42] [43] US 4 NIOSH coal miner cohorts nested CC 1959-75 All 317 No  
ANDERS [44] [4547] US Iowa Women's Health cohort 1986-94 All,Sq,Ad 343 No  
ARCHER [48] [4953] US uranium miners cohort 1950-74 All 146 No  
ARMADA [54]   Spain CC 1986-90 All 325 Yes  
AUSTIN [55] [56] US Ohio foundry workers CC 1970-86 All 166 No  
AUVINE [57] [5860] Finland radon CC 1986-92 All 517 No  
AXELSO [61]   Sweden radon CC 1960-81 All 152 No  
AXELSS [62] [6365] Sweden 26 municipality CC 1989-93 All 436 No  
BAND [66]   Canada occupational CC 1983-90 All,Sq,Ad 2831 Yes  
BARBON [67] [6872] Italy Trieste CC 1979-86 All,Sq,Ad 755 Yes  
BECHER [73] [74, 75] Germany pilot for BIPS CC 1985-86 All,Sq,Ad 194 Yes  
BENHAM [76] [7781] France CC 1976-80 All,Sq,Ad 1625 Yes LUBIN2
BENSHL [82] [8385] UK Whitehall civil servants cohort 1967-87 All 486 No  
BERRIN [86] [87] Italy CC 1977-80 All 1101 Yes LUBIN2
BEST [88] [8991] Canada war veteran pensioners cohort 1955-62 All 381 No  
BLOHMK [92]   Germany Heidelberg personality CC All 888 Yes  
BLOT1 [93]   US Georgia CC 1970-76 All 458 No  
BLOT3 [94] [95, 96] US Florida CC 1976-79 All 321 No  
BLOT4 [97] [96] US Pennsylvania CC 1974-77 All 335 No  
BOFFET [98]   West Europe pipe and cigar CC 1988-94 All 5621 No  
BOUCHA [99]   France Paris CC 1988-92 Sq 150 Yes  
BOUCOT [100] [101103] US Philadelphia LC Research cohort 1951-65 All,Sq,Ad 121 No  
BRESLO [104] [105] US California CC 1949-52 All,Sq,Ad 518 Yes  
BRETT [106]   UK X-ray volunteers cohort 1960-63 All 150 No  
BROCKM [107]   Germany Berlin CC study 1990-92 All 117 Yes  
BROSS [108] [109] US Roswell Park Memorial CC study 1960-66 All 974 No  
BROWN1 [110]   US Colorado adenocarcinoma CC 1979-82 Ad 102 Yes  
BROWN2 [111]   US Missouri CC 1984-90 All,Sq,Ad 14596 Yes  
BUELL [112]   US California American Legion cohort 1957-62 All 304 No  
BUFFLE [113] [114118] US Texas 6 counties CC 1976-80 All,Sq,Ad 943 No  
BYERS1 [119]   US Roswell Park Memorial CC 1957-65 Sq,Ad 1002 No BROSS, GRAHAM
BYERS2 [120]   US Western New York Diet CC 1980-84 All 448 Yes  
CARPEN [121] [122126] US California Genetics CC 1991-94 All 356 No  
CASCO2 [127]   Germany Berlin NAT2 Genotyping CC 1991-94 All 155 No  
CASCOR [127]   Germany Berlin NAT2 Phenotyping CC All 389 Yes  
CEDERL [128] [129131] Sweden cohort 1963-89 All 491 No  
CHAN [132]   Hong Kong 5 hospital CC 1976-77 All,Sq,Ad 397 No  
CHANG [133]   US California cholesterol cohort 1972-91 All 136 No  
CHATZI [134]   Greece Athens CC 1987-88 All 282 Yes  
CHEN [135]   Taiwan Taipai CC Sq,Ad 323 Yes  
CHEN2 [136] [137] China Guangzhou CC All 193 No  
CHEN3 [137] [138, 139] China Zhengzhou CC All 254 No  
CHIAZZ [140] [141] US Owens-Corning Fiberglass Newark CC 1940-82 All 144 No  
CHOI [142]   South Korea Cancer Centre CC 1985-88 All,Sq,Ad 375 No  
CHOW [143]   US Lutheran Brotherhood Ins. cohort 1966-86 All 219 No  
CHYOU [144] [145, 146] US Hawaii Oahu Japanese cohort 1965-90 All,Sq,Ad 227 Yes  
COMSTO [147]   US Washington Co Serum Bank nested CC 1975-93 All,Sq,Ad 258 No  
COOKSO [148]   Zimbabwe-Rhodesia Harare CC 1961-72 All 234 Yes  
CORREA [149] [95, 96, 150152] US Louisiana CC 1979-82 All,Sq,Ad 1359 No  
CPSIg [153] [154178] US ACS million person CPSI cohort 1959-72 All,Sq,Ad 5138 No  
CPSII [179] [6, 175178, 180188] US 2nd ACS cancer prevention cohort 1982-94 All,Sq,Ad 3229 No  
DAMBER [189] [190196] Sweden North CC 1972-77 All,Sq,Ad 579 No  
DARBY [197]   UK SW England radon CC 1988-93 All 982 No  
DAVEYS [198] [198201] Germany Thuringia (Schairer&Schoniger) CC 1930-41 All 109 No  
DEAN [202] [203] South Africa CC 1947-56 All 603 No  
DEAN2 [204] [205] UK/N Ireland CC 1960-62 All 954 No  
DEAN3h [206] [207] UK Cleveland Co CC 1969-73 All 766 No  
DEKLER [208] [209, 210] Australia Kalgoorlie miners cohort 1961-93 All 138 No  
DESTE2 [211] [211217] Uruguay Montevideo CC 1993-96 All,Sq,Ad 463 No  
DESTEF [218] [219221] Uruguay Montevideo CC 1988-94 All,Sq,Ad 497 Yes  
DOCKER [222] [223] US Harvard six cities cohort 1974-91 All 120 No  
DOLL [3] [224227] UK original Doll and Hill CC 1948-52 All,Sq,Ad 1465 No  
DOLL2i [228] [229239] UK British Doctors cohort 1951-91 All 920 No  
DORANT [240] [241243] Netherlands case-cohort 1986-89 All 550 Yes  
DORGAN [244] [95, 96, 245250] US New Jersey CC 1980-83 All,Sq,Ad 2026 Yes  
DORN [251] [252260] US Veterans cohort 1954-80 All,Sq,Ad 5097 No  
DOSEME [261]   Turkey Istanbul CC 1979-84 All,Sq,Ad 1210 No  
DROSTE [262]   Belgium Antwerp CC 1995-97 All 478 Yes  
DU [263] [264] China Guangzhou CC 1985 All 849 No  
DUNN [265]   US California 9 occupations cohort 1954-58 All 139 No  
EBELIN [266]   Germany Berlin (Lichtenberg) CC 1980-85 All 130 No  
ENGELA [267] [268270] Norway cohort 1964-93 All,Sq,Ad 435 No  
ENSTRO [271]   US California CPSI cohort 1959-97 All 2879 No  
ESAKI [272]   Japan Omuta and Arao CC 1961-71 All 245 No  
FAN [273]   China Sino-MONICA-Beijing Project CC 1990-91 All,Sq,Ad 403 No  
GAO [274] [137, 139, 275281] China Shanghai CC 1984-86 All,Sq,Ad 1405 No  
GAO2 [282] [283] Japan Tokai diet CC 1988-91 All 282 No  
GARCIA [284] [285287] US Boston genetics CC 1992-96 All 416 Yes  
GARDIN [288] [289] UK/Scotland Airdrie avian CC 1988-92 All 143 No  
GARSHI [290]   US railroad workers diesel CC 1981-82 All 1081 No  
GENG [291] [292] China Tianjin CC All 292 No  
GER [293] [294] Taiwan Tri-Service General Hospital 1990-91 All,Sq,Ad 141 No  
GILLIS [295] [87] UK/Scotland West CC 1977-81 All,Sq,Ad 656 No LUBIN2
GODLEY [296] [297] US 1966–68 NMFS & 1967 current pop survey CC All 1986 No  
GOLLED [298] [299] UK Teeside CC 1952-62 All 443 No  
GOODMA [300] [301] US Hawaii CC 1983-85 All 326 Yes  
GRAHAM [302]   US Roswell Park Memorial CC 1956-60 All 685 No  
GREGOR [303]   UK Brompton Hospital vitamin A CC 1976-77 All 104 Yes  
GSELL [304] [305] Switzerland St Gallen CC 1937-54 All 150 Yes  
GUO [306]   China Quanshan county Jiangsu CC 1984-86 All 196 No  
HAENSZ [307]   US Multiple hospital CC 1955-57 All,Sq,Ad 158 Yes  
HAMMO2 [308] [309312] US & Canada asbestos workers cohort 1967-76 All 450 No  
HAMMON [313] [314320] US 9 state cohort 1952-55 All,Sq,Ad 448 No  
HANSEN [321] [322] Denmark welding companies cohort 1968-86 All 105 No  
HEGMAN [323] [324] US Utah radon CC 1989-91 All,Sq,Ad 282 Yes  
HEIN [325]   Denmark Copenhagen Male cohort 1970-88 All 144 No  
HENNEK [326] [327] US doctors betacarotene trial cohort 1982-95 All 169 No  
HINDS [328]   US Hawaii CC 1968-78 All,Sq,Ad 292 No  
HIRAY2 [329] [330] Japan Tokyo CC 1950-52 All 145 No  
HIRAYAj [331] [330, 332345] Japan 6 prefecture cohort 1965-82 All 1917 No  
HITOSU [346]   Japan Amagaski and Nishinomiya CC 1960-66 All 216 No  
HOLEk [347] [348351] UK/Scotland Renfrew & Paisley cohort 1972-85 All 225 No  
HOROWI [352]   Canada Montreal CC 1956-67 All 236 No  
HORWIT [353]   US Yale/New Haven CC 1977-82 All 112 No  
HU [354]   China Heilongjiang 5 hospital CC study 1985-87 All 227 Yes  
HU2 [355] [137, 139, 356] China Harbin CC study 1977-79 All 523 No  
HUANG [357]   China Sichuan CC 1990-91 All 135 No  
HUMBLE [358] [359362] US New Mexico statewide CC 1980-82 All 521 No  
ISHIMA [363] [364] Japan A bomb survivors CC 1961-70 All,Sq,Ad 180 Yes AKIBA
JAHN [365] [366369] Germany BIPS CC 1988-93 All,Sq,Ad 1004 No BOFFET
JAIN [370] [371, 372] Canada Ontario CC 1981-85 All,Sq,Ad 845 No  
JARUP [373] [374, 375] Sweden smelter workers CC 1928-81 All 102 No  
JARVHO [376]   Sweden Goteborg asbestos CC 1983-84 All 147 No  
JEDRYC [377] [378382] Poland CC 1980-87 All,Sq,Ad 1630 No  
JIANG [383] [137, 139] China Nanchang CC 1984 All,Sq,Ad 125 No  
JOLY [384]   Cuba Havana CC 1978-80 All,Sq,Ad 826 No  
JUSSAW [385]   India Greater Bombay CC 1964-73 All,Sq,Ad 792 No  
KAISE2 [386] [387, 388] US California Kaiser cohort 1979-91 All 318 No  
KAISER [389] [390] US California Kaiser cohort 1964-80 All 714 No  
KANELL [391] [391, 392] Greece Hellenic Anticancer Inst CC 1950-62 All 862 No  
KATSOU [393]   Greece Athens CC 1987-89 All,Sq,Ad 101 No  
KAUFMA [394]   US & Canada tar level CC 1981-86 All 881 No  
KELLER [395]   US Illinois CC 1985-87 All 15038 No  
KHUDER [396]   US Philadelphia 15 hospital CC 1985-87 All,Sq,Ad 482 Yes  
KIHARA [397] [398] Japan Kanagawa genetic CC 1991-98 All,Sq,Ad 440 No  
KINLEN [399]   UK tea drinking cohort 1967-86 All 718 No  
KJUUS [400] [401, 402] Norway Telemark and Vestfold CC 1979-83 All 176 No  
KNEKT [403] [404407] Finland Mobile Clinic Health cohort 1966-91 All 515 No  
KO [408]   Taiwan Kaohsiung CC 1992-93 All 117 Yes  
KOHLME [409]   Germany Berlin pet birds CC 1990 All 239 No  
KOO [410] [411414] Hong Kong 8 hospital CC 1981-83 All,Sq,Ad 200 No  
KOULUM [415]   Finland Helsinki CC 1936-52 All 812 No  
KREUZE [416] [417, 418] Germany radon CC 1990-96 All 2260 No BOFFET
KREYBE [419] [420, 421] Norway CC 1948-53 All,Sq,Ad 300 Yes  
KUBIK [422] [423] Czechoslovakia Kolin district cohort 1965-71 All 108 No  
LAMTH [424] [411] Hong Kong 8 hospital CC 1983-86 All,Sq,Ad 445 No  
LAMWK [425] [411] Hong Kong Queen Mary Hospital CC 1981-84 All,Sq,Ad 163 No  
LAMWK2 [426] [132, 413] Hong Kong Queen Mary Hospital CC 1976-80 All,Sq,Ad 480 No  
LANGE [427] [428430] Denmark Copenhagen City Heart cohort 1976-89 All 268 No  
LAURIL [431] [432, 433] Finland ATBC nested CC 1988-93 All 230 No  
LAUSSM [434]   Germany Aue/Saxony uranium miners CC 1982-89 All 432 No  
LEI [435]   China Guangzhou CC 1986 All 792 No  
LEMARC [436]   US Hawaii Oahu genotyping CC 1992-97 All 341 Yes  
LETOUR [437]   Canada Winnipeg radon CC 1983-90 All 738 Yes  
LEVIN [438] [302, 439, 440] US Roswell Park Memorial CC 1938-52 All 475 No  
LIAW [441]   Taiwan 12 township cohort 1982-94 All 127 No  
LICKIN [442] [443, 444] Germany West CC All 224 No  
LIDDEL [445] [446449] Canada Quebec chrysotile mine cohort 1970-88 All 304 No  
LIU [450]   China Shun Yi CC 1980-86 All 229 No  
LIU2 [451]   China Guangzhou CC 1983-84 All 316 No  
LIU3 [452] [137, 453, 454] China Xuanwei farmers CC 1985-86 All 110 No  
LIU4 [455]   China million deaths 1986-88 All 100000 No  
LIU5 [456] [137] China Wuhan CC 1978-79 All 111 No  
LOMBA2 [457] [458] US Boston CC 1960-67 All,Sq,Ad 225 No  
LOMBAR [458] [457, 459] US Boston CC 1951-64 All 1040 No  
LUBIN [460] [460462] China Yunnan tin miners CC 1984-88 All,Sq,Ad 427 No XIANGZ
LUBIN2 [463] [464469] West Europe CC 1976-80 All,Sq,Ad 7804 Yes  
LUO [470]   China Fuzhou CC 1990-91 All,Sq,Ad 102 Yes  
MACLEN [471]   Singapore CC 1972-73 All 233 No  
MAGNUS [472] [473] Norway nickel workers cohort 1953-93 All 203 No  
MARSH [474]   US Arizona 6 smelter town CC 1979-90 All 150 No  
MARSH2 [475]   US Arizona 4 smelter town CC 1979-90 All 114 No  
MARTIS [476]   UK Tyneside asbestos CC 1972-73 All 201 No  
MASTRA [477]   Italy silica CC 1973-80 All 309 No  
MATOS [478]   Argentina Buenos Aires CC 1994-96 All,Sq,Ad 200 No  
MATSUD [479] [330] Japan Osaka CC 1965 All,Sq,Ad 179 No  
MCCONN [480]   UK Liverpool CC 1946-49 All 100 Yes  
MCDUFF [481]   Canada Saskatchewan CC 1979-83 All 165 No  
MCLAUG [482]   China 5 region silica workers CC 1972-89 All 316 No  
MIGRAN [483] [484, 485] UK British part of migrant cohort 1964-77 All 259 No  
MILLER [486]   US Erie County CC 1972-84 All 168 No  
MILLS [487]   US Ohio CC 1940-47 All 444 No  
MOLLO [488]   Italy Turin CC 1982-92 All,Sq,Ad 145 Yes  
MRFIT [489] [490] US MRFIT initial screening cohort 1973-82 All 2004 No  
MRFITR [489] [490492] US MRFIT randomized subjects cohort 1973-85 All 119 No MRFIT
MURATA [493]   Japan Chiba gastric screen nested CC 1984-93 All 107 No  
MZILEN [494]   South Africa Northern Province black people CC All 374 No  
NAM [495]   US National Mortality Followback 1986 All 1199 No  
NOTAN2 [496] [497] India Tata Memorial Hospital CC 1963-71 All 683 No  
NOTANI [498]   India Tata Memorial Hospital CC 1986-90 All 246 No  
NOU [499]   Sweden Uppsala CC 1971-76 All,Sq,Ad 273 No  
ODRISC [500] [501] UK Salford Bronchoscopy Database CC All 446 No  
ORMOS [502]   Hungary Szeged CC 1947-59 All,Sq,Ad 119 Yes  
OSANN [503]   US Orange Co. Cancer Surveillance CC 1984-86 All,Sq,Ad 1986 No  
OSANN2 [504] [505] US California Kaiser nested CC 1969-77 All,Sq,Ad 217 Yes KAISER
PARKIN [506]   Zimbabwe-Rhodesia Bulawayo CC 1963-77 All 877 No  
PASTOR [507]   Italy Lombardy CC 1976-79 All 204 No  
PAWLEG [508]   Poland Cracow CC 1992-94 All 176 Yes  
PERNU [509]   Finland CC 1944-58 All 1606 No  
PERSH2 [510]   Sweden 109 municipality CC 1980-84 All 1022 No  
PETO [511]   UK FEV cohort 1954-81 All 103 No  
PEZZO2 [512]   Argentina Rosario CC 1992-98 All 367 Yes  
PEZZOT [513]   Argentina Rosario CC 1987-91 All,Sq,Ad 215 Yes  
PIKE [514]   US California LA County air poll. CC 1972-75 All 731 No  
PISANI [515] [87] Italy Lombardy diet CC 1980-81 All 417 No LUBIN2
POFFIJ [516] [517] West Europe Ardennes-Eifel radon CC 1990-95 All 971 No  
POLEDN [518]   US Toxic waste dumpsite CC 1978-81 All 209 No  
PRESCO [519] [520] Denmark 3 Copenhagen cohort studies pooled 1964-93 All,Sq,Ad 867 No HEIN, LANGE
QIAO [521] [522, 523] China Yunnan tin miners CC 1985 All 107 No XIANGZ
QIAO2 [524]   China Yunnan tin miners cohort 1992-95 All 241 No  
RACHTA [525]   Poland Cracow CC 1991-94 All 118 Yes  
RADZIK [526]   Poland lung cancer relatives CC 1986-87 All 189 No  
RANDIG [527]   Germany Berlin CC 1951-54 All 448 No  
REN [137]   China CC All 244 No  
RESTRE [528]   Colombia CC 1978-80 All 102 No  
RIMING [529]   UK Mass radiography cohort 1970-76 All 104 No  
RONCO [530]   Italy Turin CC 1976-80 All 126 No  
ROOTS [531]   Germany Berlin debrisoquine CC All 270 Yes CASCOR
ROTHSC [532]   US Southern Louisiana CC 1971-77 All 284 No  
SAARIK [533]   Finland genetics CC 1988-96 All,Sq,Ad 205 Yes  
SADOWS [534]   US National Cancer Institute CC 1938-43 All 477 No  
SANKAR [535]   India Trivandrum diet CC 1990 All 281 No  
SCHWAR [536] [537] US Michigan CC 1984-87 All,Sq,Ad 5588 Yes  
SEGI [538]   Japan nationwide CC 1948-52 All 159 No  
SEGI2 [539]   Japan Tokyo and Sendai CC 1962-70 All,Sq,Ad 378 No  
SEOW [540]   Singapore NAT2 CC 1997-98 All,Sq,Ad 153 Yes  
SHAW [541]   US & Canada Bethesda/Quebec debrisoquine CC 1988-92 All 335 Yes  
SHIMIZ [542]   Japan Sendai Kosei Hospital CC 1977-82 All,Sq,Ad 751 No  
SIEMIA [543] [544547] Canada Montreal occupational CC 1979-85 All,Sq,Ad 857 Yes  
SIMARA [548]   Thailand Chiang Mai CC 1971-72 All 115 No  
SITAS [549]   South Africa Johannesburg black people CC −1997 All * No  
SOBUE [550] [551, 552] Japan Osaka CC 1986-88 All,Sq,Ad 1376 Yes  
SOBUE2 [553]   Japan Osaka CC 1965-83 All,Sq,Ad 2083 No  
SPEIZE [554] [555] US Nurses' Health cohort 1976-92 All 593 Yes  
SPITZ [556] [557566] US Texas University Genetics All 177 Yes  
STASZE [567]   Poland Gliwice CC 1954-58 All,Sq,Ad 281 Yes  
STAYNE [568] [569] US Third National Cancer Survey CC 1969-71 All,Sq,Ad 420 No  
STOCKS [570] [571, 572] UK British Empire Cancer Campaign CC 1952-55 All 2932 No  
STOCKW [573]   US Florida phosphate mining area CC 1981-83 All 22161 No  
STUCKE [574]   France GSTM1 CC 1989-92 All 247 Yes  
SUN [575]   China Liaoning genetics CC 1992-94 All 207 Yes  
SUZUK2 [576] [577] Brazil Rio de Janeiro CC 1991-92 All,Sq,Ad 123 Yes  
SUZUKI [578]   Japan Osaka CC 1978-86 Ad 238 Yes  
SVENSS [579] [580, 581] Sweden Stockholm County CC 1983-86 All,Sq,Ad 210 No  
TANG [582] [583] US Columbia Presbyterian genetics CC All 119 Yes  
TANG2 [584]   UK 4 cohort studies pooled 1967-90 All 836 No BENSHL, HOLE, WALD
TAO [585]   China Shanghai CC 1988-90 All 723 No  
TENKAN [586] [587591] Finland part Finland/Norway cohort 1962-87 All 242 No  
TIZZAN [592]   Italy CC 1959-61 All,Sq,Ad 1358 No  
TOKARS [593] [594597] Russia Nuclear Workers nested CC 1966-91 All,Sq,Ad 162 Yes  
TOUSEY [598]   US Duval County CC 1993-96 All 507 Yes  
TSUGAN [599]   Japan National Cancer Centre CC 1976-85 All,Sq,Ad 134 Yes  
TULINI [600]   Iceland Rejkjavik cohort 1967-95 All 472 No  
TVERDA [601]   Norway cohort 1972-88 All 238 No  
ULMER [602]   Germany Bochum CC 1971-75 All 726 No  
VEIERO [603]   Norway Health Screening cohort 1977-91 All 153 No TVERDA
VUTUC [604] [604620] Austria CC 1976-80 All,Sq,Ad 1877 No LUBIN2
WAKAI [621]   Japan Okinawa CC 1988-91 All,Sq,Ad 333 Yes  
WALD [622]   UK BUPA cohort 1975-93 All 102 No  
WANG [623]   China Guangdong CC 1990-93 All,Sq,Ad 390 Yes  
WANG2 [624] [137, 139] China Tai Yuan CC 1980-82 All 103 No  
WANG3 [137] [139, 625] China Nanjing CC All 293 No  
WANG4 [626]   China Xuanwei farmers cohort 1976-96 All 1170 No  
WARSIN [442]   Netherlands CC All 134 No  
WATSON [627] [628] US New York Memorial Hospital CC 1950-52 All 301 Yes  
WICKLU [629]   US Washington County orchardists CC 1968-80 All 155 No  
WIGLE [630]   Canada Alberta CC 1971-73 All 728 No  
WILKIN [631]   UK London Chest Hospital CC 1992-93 All 271 No  
WU [632]   US California LA County CC 1981-82 All,Sq,Ad 220 Yes  
WU2 [633]   US California LA County CC 1983-86 Ad 336 Yes  
WUNSCH [634] [635] Brazil Sao Paulo CC study 1990-91 All 398 No  
WUWILL [636] [137, 139, 637640] China Shenyang and Harbin CC study 1985-87 All,Sq,Ad 965 No  
WYNDE2 [641] [642644] US New York CC study 1962-64 All,Sq,Ad 404 Yes  
WYNDE3 [645]   US New York Memorial CC study 1966-69 All,Sq,Ad 350 Yes  
WYNDE4 [2] [646] US 8 state CC study 1948-50 All,Sq,Ad 684 No  
WYNDE5 [647] [648] US 4 city CC study 1969-76 All,Sq,Ad 1365 Yes WYNDE6
WYNDE6l [649] [644, 650677] US 4 city CC study 1969-96 All,Sq,Ad 4423 Yes  
WYNDE7 [676]   US 6 city CC study 1977-84 All,Sq,Ad 2085 Yes WYNDE6
WYNDE8 [677]   US 4 city CC study 1985-90 All,Sq,Ad 1044 Yes WYNDE6
WYNDER [678]   Cuba Havana CC study 1956-57 All 120 No  
XIANGZ [679]   China Yunnan tin miners cohort study 1976-87 All 983 No  
XU [637] [137, 139, 638, 639] China Shenyang CC study 1985-87 All,Sq,Ad 729 No  
XU2 [680] [639] China Anshan Iron-Steel workers CC study 1987-93 All 610 No  
XU3 [681] [137] China Tianjin CC study 1981 All, Sq, Ad 135 No  
XU4 [137] [682] China 26 city air pollution CC study All 206 No  
YAMAGU [683]   Japan occupational CC study 1989-90 All 144 Yes  
YONG [684] [260] US NHANES I - NHEFS cohort study 1971-92 All 216 No  
YUAN [685]   China Shanghai cohort study 1986-93 All 142 No  
ZHANG [686] [137] China Jinzhou CC study 1988-89 All 100 No  
ZHENG [687] [137, 139, 688] China Shanghai CC study 1982-84 All,Sq,Ad 540 Yes  
ZHOU [689]   China Medical Univ CC study 1978-94 All,Sq,Ad 1360 No  
  1. a CC = case–control, date range for cohort study is from start at baseline interview to end of follow-up.
  2. b Indicates whether the study provided data for all lung cancer (All), squamous cell carcinoma (Sq) or adenocarcinoma (Ad), or a near equivalent definition (see Methods).
  3. c Number of lung cancer cases.
  4. d Whether or not full histological confirmation of cases was carried out.
  5. e For subsidiary studies, this column shows the relevant principal study.
  6. f Additional sources were two unpublished reports made available by personal communication from P N Lee.
  7. g Additional sources were two unpublished reports made available by personal communication from Dr E C Hammond.
  8. h An additional source was an unpublished report made available by personal communication from Dr G Dean.
  9. i An additional source was an unpublished report made available by personal communication from Dr J Peto.
  10. j An additional source was an unpublished report made available by personal communication from Dr T Hirayama.
  11. k An additional source was an unpublished report made available by personal communication from Dr V Hawthorne.
  12. l An additional source was an unpublished report made available by personal communication from Dr G C Kabat.