The range of radiation exposure of interventional cardiologists per single procedure: diagnostic coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary angioplasty, cardiac ablation, cardiac pacemakers, intracardiac defibrillator or implantation, transcutaneous aortic valve implantation, dilation of chronic coronary total occlusion and endovascular thoraco-abdominal aneurysm repair. From original data of references 14–16. There is substantial variability in operator dose across procedures and within each procedure. On the y-axis, a log scale is used. Right side: The annual radiation exposure for different specialists. Interventional cardiologists are by far the most exposed (modified from Vano E et?al., 1998, ref. 4). (b) The map of radiation exposure in the cardiac interventionalist. There are “hot regions” of higher exposure in the eye, thyroid and brain that should be carefully protected by glasses, collars and cap. Radiation exposure on the left is almost double that on the right side (modified from Vano E et?al., 1998, ref. 4). Right side: Estimated cumulative dose after 20 years of professional life in the cardiac cath lab: the whole body dose (below lead apron) is around 100 mSv; the head dose is 10 times higher, and in the head, the left head dose is twice that of the right side dose. Obviously, in this order of magnitude there are substantial variations (up to 10 times) depending on years of exposure, volume of activity, type of procedure, technology used, protection habits and radiation awareness.