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Table 4 Incorporated SEIs, area-based SES, and breast cancer stage at diagnosis

From: Breast cancer stage at diagnosis and area-based socioeconomic status: a multicenter 10-year retrospective clinical epidemiological study in China

Variable by level Mean ± SD Included Provinces Total Stage 0&I Stage II Stage III&IV Unavailable Chi-square for trend P-value
     N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)   
GDP per capita (1)          
Highest 36146 ± 17217 Beijing 641 179 (27.9) 280 (43.7) 95 (14.8) 87 (13.6) 80.79 < 0.001
High 20774 ± 9006 Liaoning, Guangdong, Zhejiang 2024 349 (17.1) 805 (39.4) 417 (20.4) 471 (23.1)   
Low 8704 ± 3986 Hunan, Shannxi, Sichuan 1528 174 (11.4) 806 (52.7) 389 (25.5) 159 (10.4)   
HSE percentage (2)          
Highest 6.11 ± 0.73 Beijing, Zhejiang 1247 278 (22.3) 519 (41.6) 252 (20.2) 198 (15.9) 3.307 0.081
High 4.42 ± 0.57 Guangdong, Sichuan 1103 124 (11.2) 479 (43.5) 287 (26.0) 213 (19.3)   
Low 3.49 ± 0.70 Liaoning, Hunan, Shannxi 1861 300 (16.1) 893 (48.0) 362 (19.5) 306 (16.4)   
PU/PR ratio (3)          
Highest 5.39 ± 0.22 Beijing 641 179 (27.9) 280 (43.7) 95 (14.8) 87 (13.6) 72.00 < 0.001
Higher 1.67 ± 0.09 Guangdong 604 106 (17.5) 243 (40.2) 137 (22.7) 118 (19.6)   
High 1.39 ± 0.08 Liaoning, Zhejiang 1438 243 (16.9) 562 (39.1) 280 (19.5) 353 (24.5)   
Low 0.62 ± 0.08 Hunan, Shannxi, Sichuan 1528 174 (11.4) 806 (52.7) 389 (25.5) 159 (10.4)   
FPI percentage (4)          
Highest 16.97 ± 3.55 Zhejiang, Shannxi, Sichuan 1588 194 (12.2) 645 (40.6) 490 (30.9) 259 (16.3) 135.83 < 0.001
High 10.60 ± 2.62 Hunan, Guangdong 1150 185 (16.1) 643 (55.9) 193 (16.8) 129 (11.2)   
Low 7.21 ± 1.57 Beijing, Liaoning, 1473 323 (21.9) 603 (40.9) 218 (14.8) 329 (22.4)   
Area-based SES (5)          
Highest - Beijing 641 179 (27.9) 280 (43.7) 95 (14.8) 87 (13.6) 80.79 < 0.001
High - Liaoning, Guangdong, Zhejiang 2024 349 (17.1) 805 (39.4) 417 (20.4) 471 (23.1)   
Low - Hunan, Shannxi, Sichuan 1528 174 (11.4) 806 (52.7) 389 (25.5) 159 (10.4)   
  1. (1): GDP per capita: yuan per person per year (mean ± SD, 1999-2008)
  2. (2): percentage of health-services expenditure in the regional/province public affairs general budget (%) (mean ± SD, 1999-2008)
  3. (3): ratio of urban to rural population (mean ± SD, 2005-2008) (data is available in the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China only for 2005 to 2008)
  4. (4): percentage of illiteracy among women aged 15 and over (%) (mean ± SD, 1999-2008)
  5. (5): Area-based SES is a composite measure synthesized by cluster analysis of the four SEIs