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Table 4 Mutational Spectrum of Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes

From: Mutational profiling reveals PIK3CA mutations in gallbladder carcinoma

Gene GBC (%) EHCC (%) IHCC (%) Method Refs.
CTNNB1/
β-CATENIN
5    SEQ [33]
  9 0   SEQ [34]
  0    SEQ [35]
KRAS 38    PCR-SSCP [5]
  20    PCR-RFLP [16]
  19    PCR-RFLP [32]
  3 15   SEQ [3]
   10   PCR-SSCP [15]
    54 SEQ [6]
    45 SEQ [2]
    48 SEQ [36]
  0 0 13 OncoMap  
BRAF 33    SEQ [7]
    22 SEQ [2]
  0 0 0 SEQ & GLCR [8]
EGFR 9 18 20 SEQ [9]
   6   SEQ [10]
  12 5 10 IHC and FISH [37]
PIK3CA 4 0 9 SEQ [11]
  13 0 0 OncoMap  
ERBB2/
HER-2
16 5 0 IHC and FISH [37]
P16INK4A 31    SSCP [16]
  62 55   numerous [13]
    88 numerous [6]
TP53 36    SSCP [16]
   33   PCR-SSCP [15]
    37 SEQ [14]
SMAD4   16   PCR-SSCP [12]
   55 13 IHC [38]
STK11/LKB1   6   SEQ [39]
  1. Abbreviations: GBC; gallbladder carcinoma, IHCC; intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma, EHCC; extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma, SEQ; sequencing, PCR-SSCP; polymerase chain reaction single-strand confirmation polymorphism, RFLP; restriction fragment length polymorphism, GLCR; gap ligase chain reaction.