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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II production is a strong predictive marker for extrahepatic metastases in early hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective evaluation

Characteristics n = 354
Age (years)   56 (19-82)
Sex Male 265 (74.9%)
Etiology of chronic liver disease Hepatitis B virus 337 (95.2%)
  Hepatitis C virus 13 (3.7%)
Tumor size Non-B, non-C
< 5 cm
4 (1.1%)
261 (73.7%)
  ≥ 5 cm 93 (26.2%)
Tumor number 1 216 (61.0%)
  2-3 57 (16.1%)
  > 3 81 (22.8%)
Treatment modality TACE 204 (57.6%)
  PEIT 74 (20.9%)
  RFA 42 (11.9%)
  Surgery 34 (9.6%)
BCLC Tumor stage A: Early 224 (63.1%)
  B: Intermediate 48 (13.5%)
  C: advanced 67 (18.9%)
  D: end-stage 15 (4.2%)
AJCC Tumor stage I 170 (48.0%)
  II 86 (24.6%)
  III 98 (27.4%)
Portal vein thrombosis Present 65 (18.4%)
Child-Pugh class A 247 (69.8%)
  B 92 (26.0%)
  C 15 (4.2%)
Serum AFP   52.0 (2.2-3, 560, 000)
(ng/mL) < 400 244 (68.9%)
  ≥ 400 110 (31.1%)
Serum PIVKA-II   54.0 (2.0-42, 780)
(mAU/mL) < 300 255 (72.0%)
  ≥ 300 99 (28.0%)
Laboratory parameters Platelet count (103/μL) 121 (18-610)
  PT (%) 83 (36-126)
  AST (IU/L) 50 (17-2036)
  ALT (IU/L) 43 (6-1775)
  Albumin (g/dL) 3.7 (2.1-5.0)
  Total bilirubin (mg/dL) 1.0 (0.3-31.8)
  1. Values in the column are represented as number of patients (%) or median value (range).
  2. Abbreviation: TACE, transarterial chemoembolization; RFA, radiofrequency ablation; PEI, percutaneous ethanol injection; AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; PIVKA-II, Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II; PT, prothrombin time; AST, aspartate aminotransaminase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase.
  3. † all were used with continuous variables.