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Table 3 Subgroup analyses of association with disease stage meta-analysis

From: Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cell detection in bladder and urothelial cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

Parameter Subgroupa ORb Parameter Subgroups ORb
Country of origin Japan (n = 5) 10.48 (4.82 to 22.78; I2 = 0) Histologic tumor type TCC (n = 9) 7.91 (4.60 to 13.61; I2 = 0)
  Other (n = 7) 5.20 (2.21 to 12.25; I2 = 22.7%)   Not reported or TCC+other components (n = 3) 3.94 (0.35 to 43.85; I2 = 51.1%)
Cell separation method Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation ± further methods (n = 5) 5.07 (2.48 to 10.35; I2 = 0) Sampling time Pretreatment or ≥7 days post-chemotherapy (n = 9 8.24 (4.63 to 14.68; I2 = 0)
  CellSearch method (n = 3) 7.43 (1.52 to 36.25; I2 = 22.4%)   NR or miscellany (n = 3) 3.95 (0.36 to 43.95; I2 = 71.0%)
  Other protocols or NR (n = 4) 13.57 (5.27 to 34.95; I2 = 0)    
Blood sample volume ≤7.5 ml (n = 6) 9.36 (4.65 to 18.86; I2 = 0) Collection of two consecutive blood samples Yes (n = 4) 4.25 (1.56 to 11.62; I2 = 21.1%)
  > 7.5 ml (n = 6) 5.00 (2.27 to 11.00; I2 = 0)   No (n = 8) 9.53 (4.88 to 18.62; I2 = 0)
Molecular detection technique RT-PCR based (including nested RT-PCR; n = 7) 8.36 (4.62 to 15.13; I2 = 0) Nested RT-PCR method Yes (n = 6) 7.53 (4.09 to 13.85; I2 = 0)
  Other (n = 5) 4.55 (1.07 to 19.35; I2 = 34.7%)   No (n = 6) 7.21 (1.66 to 31.28; I2 = 47.0%)
PCR marker usedc CK-20 (n = 5) 5.47 (2.80 to 10.68; I2 = 0)    
  UP II (n = 3) 1.59 (0.10 to 25.27; I2 = 89.8%)    
  Other (n = 3) 17.50 (3.98 to 77.03; I2 = 0)    
  1. aPooled analysis was performed by including the results of single marker (either the most specific or the most sensitive in cases with equal specificity) in cases where multiple markers were assessed per study.
  2. bData in parentheses are 95% confidence intervals.
  3. cSubgroup analyses of the different tumor markers used in PCR-based methods included and compared data from all markers in those studies where multiple assays were used.
  4. NR, not reported/retrievable; OR, odds ratio; RBC, red blood cells.