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Table 1 Characteristics of Studies Included in the Meta-analysis

From: Fish consumption and the risk of gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Design Country No. of Cases/No. of Non-cases OR or RR (95% CI) Fish Consumption Levels Covariate Adjustment Methods Used for Assessing Dietary Dntake
Buiatti 1991 PCC Italy 510/1159 1.00 (0.80-1.30) T3 vs. T1 Age, sex, area, place of residence, migration, socioeconomic status, familiar GC history, Quetelet index, total caloric intake Interview with a structured questionnaire
Chen 2002 PCC China 124/449 0.58 (0.25-1.40) Q4 vs. Q1 Age, sex, energy intake, respondent type, BMI, alcohol use, tobacco use, eduction, family history, vitamin supplement use Interview with a modified version of the short Health Habits and History Questionnaire
Cornée 1995 HCC France 92/128 0.97 (0.48-1.96) Q3 vs. Q1 Age, sex, occupation and total energy intake Interview with a dietary history questionnaire
De Stefani 2004 HCC Uruguay 240/960 0.73 (0.51-1.03) T3 vs. T1 Age, sex, residence, urban/rural status, education, boby mass index, toal energy intake Interview with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)
Fernandez 1999 HCC Italy 745/7990 0.80 (0.70-0.90) Increment 1 serving/wk vs. 1 Serving/wk Age, sex, area of residence, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index Interview with a structured questionnaire
Hamada 2002 HCC Brazil 96/192 0.30 (0.10-2.20) Daily vs. <1 d/week Beef comsuption, country of birth Interview with a questionnaire
Hoshiyama 1992 PCC Japan 216/483 0.90 (0.50-1.40) ≥15/week vs. ≤4/week   Interview with a lifestyle questionnaire
Hu 2008 PCC Canada 1182/5039 1.3 (1.00-1.60) Q3vs. Q1 (≥5 oz/week vs. ≤2 oz/week) Age, province, education, body mass index, sex, alcohol use, pack-year smoking, total of vegetable and fruit intake Mail with a short version of the Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)
Muñoz 2001 PCC France 302/485 0.36 (0.22-0.60) Q4 vs. Q1 age, sex, tobacco, alcohol, total calories and SES Interview with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)
Phukan 2006 HCC India 329/665 0.18 (0.02-5.30) ≥2/week vs. never Level of education, tobacco use, alcohol drinking, Interview with a structured pretested questionnaire
Pourfarzi 2009 PCC Iran 210/389 0.37 (0.19-0.70) ≥1/week vs. never or infrequently Gender, age group, education, family history of GC, citrus fruit, garlic, onion, red meat, fish, diary products, strength and warmth of tea, preference for salt intake and H. pylori Interviewed with a structured questionnaire
Rao 2002 HCC India 119/1591 1.4 (0.95-2.00) At least once a week vs. never or once in 2 weeks Habit, age group and sex Interview with a questionnaire
Ito 2003 HCC Japan 508/36490 0.60 (0.40-0.90) ≥ 5 times/week vs. < 1 time/week Age, year, season at first hospital visit, smoking habit and family history of gastric cancer Interview with a self-administered questionnaire
Takezaki 2001 PCC China 187/333 1.35 (0.64-2.85) ≥3 times/week vs. <1 time/month Age, sex, smoking and drinking Interview with a structured questionnaire
Ward 1999 PCC Mexico 220/752 2.20 (1.20-3.80) ≥2.6 times/week vs. <1 time/week Age, gender, total calories, chilli pepper consumption, added salt, history of peptic ulcer, cigarette smoking and socioeconomic status Interview with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire
Larsson 2006 cohort Sweden 136/61433 1.14 (0.75-1.72) Highest vs. lowest Age, education, body mass index, intake of total energy, alcohol, fruits and vegetables Mail with a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ)
Ngoan 2002 cohort Japan 107/12365 0.90 (0.30-2.10) ≥1 time/day vs. ≤2-4 time/month Sex, age, smoking and other dietary factors Interview with a self-administered questionnaire
  1. Abbreviations: PCC: population-based case-control study; HCC: hospital-based case-control study; Q: quartile; T: tertile; OR: Odd Risk, RR: Relative Risk; CI: Confidence Interval