Autophagy and apoptosis are enhanced by the combination of ARHI re-expression and paclitaxel. ARHI-induced autophagy is increased by the addition of paclitaxel in SKBr3 (A) and MDA-MB-231 (B) cells. The cells were transfected with pcDNA3-ARHI or pcDNA3 vector constructs. Cells treated with lipofectamine only or DMSO diluent served as negative controls. After 24 hours, paclitaxel was added. Flow cytometry-AVO analysis was performed after 48 hours. *P < 0.05 compared to control. The data were obtained from three independent experiments. (C) Paclitaxel-induced apoptosis is increased by ARHI re-expression. MDA-MB-231 cells or SKBr3 cells were treated with paclitaxel, DAC, TSA, or a combination. The rate of apoptosis was analyzed by annexin-flow cytometry after 48 hours. **P < 0.01 compared to control. The data were obtained from three independent experiments. (D) Both apoptotic cells (left) and autophagic cells (right) were detected by TEM in xenograft tumors that received paclitaxel/ARHI combination treatment.