Curcumin reduces tumor growth in DAOY in vivo tumor xenografts and Smo/Smo mice. A. Effect of curcumin on tumor growth of subcutaneous xenograft tumors in nude mice. 30 days after cell injection (arrow), each group of mice (N = 12) received corn oil or curcumin (1 g/kg body weight) once daily and the tumor volume was measured by using a caliper. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001. Data are representative of three independent studies. Bottom panel, fluorescent ventral images of tumor-bearing mice. tdTomato-expressing tumors were imaged once a week and representative images are shown. B. Life span of control and curcumin-treated Smo/Smo (N = 9) plotted as Kaplan-Meier survival curve. The median survival time of curcumin-treated mice was 192 days vs 144 days of control mice (corn oil). P = 0.0308 (log rank analysis). C. Apoptotic markers, tubulin acetylation and HDAC expression and phosphorylation in tumor lysates obtained from each group of the Smo/Smo mice.