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Table 2 Clinicopathological and lifestyle characteristics of colorectal cancer cases by BRAF or K-ras mutation status and K-ras mutated cancers by specific K-ras mutation types.

From: Dietary, lifestyle and clinicopathological factors associated with BRAF and K-ras mutations arising in distinct subsets of colorectal cancers in the EPIC Norfolk study

  BRAFmutation K-rasmutation K-rasmutation type
Characteristic Wildtype n= 157 Mutant n= 29 P Wildtype n= 145 Mutant n= 41 P G to A n= 22 Other n= 17 P
Sex          
   Male 52.9 (83) 34.5 (10)   46.9 (68) 61.0 (25)   63.6 (14) 58.8 (10)  
   Female 47.1 (74) 65.5 (19) 0.07 53.1 (77) 39.0 (16) 0.11 36.4 (8) 41.2(7) 0.76
Age at diagnosis (years) 70.1 (7.9) 72.9 (5.5) 0.07* 71.1 (7.1) 68.5 (8.9) 0.06* 67.2 (9.4) 69.4 (8.7) 0.46*
Tumour location          
   Proximal colonic 28.3 (41) 75.0 (21)   33.1 (44) 45.0 (18)   42.9 (9) 52.9 (9)  
   Distal colonic/Rectal 71.7 (104) 25.0 (7) <0.001 66.9 (89) 55.0 (22) 0.17 57.1 (12) 47.1 (8) 0.54
Differentiation          
   Well/Moderate 90.6 (125) 59.3 (16) (FET) 85.8 (109) 84.2 (32)   80.0 (16) 87.5 (14) (FET)
   Poor 9.4 (13) 40.7 (11) <0.001 14.2 (18) 15.8 (6) 0.80 20.0 (4) 12.5 (2) 0.67
Dukes' Stage          
   A/B 54.5 (73) 57.7 (15)   61.9 (78) 29.4 (10)   27.8 (5) 33.3 (5) (FET)
   C/D 45.5 (61) 42.3 (11) 0.76 38.1 (48) 70.6 (24) 0.001 72.2 (13) 66.7 (101) 1.00
MSI status          
   MSS 90.8 (129) 42.9 (12) (FET) 78.4 (105) 100.0 (36)   a a  
   MSI 9.2 (13) 57.1 (16) <0.001 21.6 (29) 0.0 (0) 0.002 a a a
BMI (kg/m2) 27.3 (4.3) 26.6 (4.3) 0.41* 27.0 (4.3) 27.9 (4.3) 0.26* 28.1 (4.3) 27.7 (4.7) 0.74*
Alcohol intake (g/d) 9.9 (15.3) 5.1 (10.4) 0.11* 8.6 (14.1) 11.1 (16.6) 0.36* 11.1 (18.0) 8.6 (11.1) 0.62*
Smoking status          
   Current 9.9 (15) 13.8 (4)   11.4 (16) 7.3 (3)   13.6 (3) 0.0 (0)  
   Former 46.1 (70) 48.3 (14)   45.7 (64) 48.8 (20)   45.5 (10) 52.9 (9)  
   Never 44.1 (67) 37.9 (11) 0.74 42.9 (60) 43.9 (18) 0.75 40.9 (9) 47.1 (8) 0.29
Physical activity          
   Low 66.7 (104) 69.0 (20)   66.0 (95) 70.7 (29)   63.6 (14) 76.5 (13)  
   High 33.3 (52) 31.0 (9) 0.81 34.0 (49) 29.3 (12) 0.57 36.4 (8) 23.5 (4) 0.49
HRT satatus          
   Current 9.6 (7) 5.3 (1)   9.2 (7) 6.2 (1)   b b  
   Former 16.4 (12) 21.1 (4)   17.1 (13) 18.8 (3)   b b  
   Never 74.0 (54) 73.7 (14) 0.78 73.7 (56) 75.0 (12) 0.93 b b b
LDL (mmol/l) 4.14 (1.1) 4.06 (1.1) 0.75* 4.19 (1.2) 3.91 (0.8) 0.19* 3.85 (0.7) 3.93 (1.0) 0.79*
HDL (mmol/l) 1.30 (0.4) 1.33 (0.3) 0.63* 1.33 (0.4) 1.19 (0.4) 0.04* 1.16 (0.4) 1.16 (0.4) 0.96*
Triglyceride (mmol/l) 2.11 (1.2) 1.94 (1.1) 0.48* 2.02 (1.1) 2.34 (1.3) 0.12* 2.23 (1.2) 2.59 (1.5) 0.43*
Plasma vitamin C (μmol/l) 52.0 (24.3) 48.0 (20.9) 0.44* 52.5 (24.8) 47.5 (20.0) 0.28* 45.4 (19.7) 50.0 (20.9) 0.52*
  1. P values determined by χ2 test or Fisher's exact test when one or more expected values were less than 5 (denoted by FET). *: ANOVA tests used to calculate p-values. Results presented as [n (%)] or [mean (± SD)]. HRT: hormone replacement therapy. MSI: Microsatellite instability. MSS: Microsatellite stable. Not all individuals had data for each variable, in these cases these individuals were omitted from the test. For HRT testing only females were analysed, for which 92 had data available. aMicrosatellite instability was not tested relative to different K-ras mutation types as none of the cancers harbouring K-ras mutation exhibited microsatellite instability. bHRT status was not tested relative to different K-ras mutation types due to the low numbers of cases available for testing.