DLX2 and DLX5 expression and correlation with disease-free survival in human breast cancers. (A) DLX2 and DLX5 expression were analyzed by RT-PCR in normal breast tissue (lane 1), ductal breast carcinoma (lane 2), and mixed breast carcinoma (lane 3). (B) Relative expression of DLX2 and DLX5 in 408 human breast cancer samples as analyzed by microarrays (Gene Expression Omnibus datasets GSE1459 and GSE3494). Expression values are color-coded, red: expression above the mean value, green: expression below the mean value. Intensity of colour correlates to the strength of up- or downregulation. Samples are ordered by hierarchical clustering based on the expression values of these two genes. Incidence of relapse is indicated in the lower bar (brown: no relapse, pink: relapse; 12 year follow-up). (C) Kaplan-Meier estimates of disease free survival of DLX2+/DLX5- patients (n = 88), DLX2-/DLX5- patients (n = 311), and DLX2-/DLX5+ patients (n = 9). (D) Statistical analysis of relapse incidence among the three groups. The incidence of relapse was 18/88 for DLX2+/DLX5- patients, 106/311 for DLX2-/DLX5- patients, and 5/9 for DLX2-/DLX5+ patients. P = p-value, RR = relative risk, OR = odds ratio, CI = confidence interval.